I hope you are as pleased to visit as I am that you came. The hope here is to organize Scriptures in ways that enable one to consider with fresh eyes the claims Jesus made regarding His Return: the timing, the nature, and the consequences. Most are acquainted with the teaching that, 50 generations after His claims, Jesus has yet to perform the soon Return He so urgently preached to those who saw Him go away. A portion of us find that teaching less than satisfying. For those of us who desire to understand Jesus' words in their earnest sense, "soon Return!," simply cannot mean, "Return somewhere between 30AD and 2000AD or beyond; and the Kingdom coming 1000 years after that."

Ages to Come


Eccl 1.10 states, “Is there a thing of which it is said, “See, this is new”? It has been already, in the ages before us.” “Ages before us.” Rom 16.25 says, “Now to him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which was kept secret for long ages.” “But we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God, which God decreed before the ages for our glorification” (1Co 2.7). So far we have “ages long ago” (previous to the writer of Eccl), and “before the ages” – before time and creation. “Ages” starts with creation: “In the distant past I was fashioned, At the beginning, at the origin of earth” (Prov 8.23). Then, when we get to Paul, there were “long ages” before his time. He wrote, again: “and to make plain to everyone the administration of this mystery, which for ages past was kept hidden in God, who created all things” (Eph 3.9). Creation. Ages.

“The mystery which hath been hidden from ages and generations, but now is manifested to his saints” (Col 1.26). Ages and “generations” appear to go together as well. “To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory for ever and ever. Amen” (ITim 1.17). Jesus is the King of the ages. From first to last (Isa 41.4). So, we have ages, which clearly end (else, why have ages, plural?). One comes, another one goes. Paul speaks that in his time the “end of the ages” had come (1Co 10.11). Jesus spoke of an end of an age (Mt 24.3). “Who did save us, and did call with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace, that was given to us in Christ Jesus, before the times of the ages” (2Ti 1.9). Whoever the “us” is here, God knew them, and saved them through Christ. That was his eternal “purpose” before the ages even began. Not to make salvation possible, but actual. “upon hope of life age-during, which God, who doth not lie, did promise before times of ages” (Tit. 1.2). Now, this “times of the ages” – how long does this span? It would seem to encompass the entire span of human history (which is made up of “ages” or “generations”). “for then he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world. But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself” (Hebr 9.26). Here again, an end of previous ages is announced. But, is that end of all ages?

“that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus” (Eph 2.7). Answer: nope. The end of past ages brings about more ages to come. The end of the age in Paul’s day was not the end of all ages. In numerous places Paul spoke of “this age” or his own time. There was God, who existed before the ages, or generations. Then, we have the first age, or generations. Then, after awhile, we have “ages past” and an “end of an age” in particular in Paul’s day. However, “ages to come” indicates that more ages are, well, to come!

“not only in this age but also in the one to come” (Eph 1.21). Ages end. Ages come. Ages go. “and have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the age to come” (Hebr 6.4). What are the “powers” of the “age to come”? Clearly, the future ages is not Paul’s “present evil age”. Every age has evil in it. I guess every generation has some evil in there as well. These “powers” were “already” at work in Paul’s present generation, but, they would not stop working once his age, or generation ended. If they are powers of coming ages, then clearly, the same power at work then in his age, would be at work in the coming ages. They are powers of(descriptive genitive) the age(s) to come. But, as we have seen, ages do come to thier end. At least the past ones did. “Ages long ago” are past, ended ages. Lot’s of “ends of the age” going on, don’t you think? Job 8.8 reads, “For inquire, please, of bygone ages, and consider what the fathers have searched out.” Ages come and ages go. They have a beginning and they have an end. God is King of them all.

We also have “last days” which appear to be particular to the last days of Israel preferred covenant status and the Mosaic institutions. The arrival of the new covenant would mark an “end of an age(s)”. One could perhaps see the “covenants” in the past as “ages” or “eras”. The Era of the Davidic Covenant. The Era of the Noachic Covenant, etc. “Dispensation” or “Adminstration” is another word that is used. And, God is with them all, “from the first to the last” (Isaiah 41.4). Ecclesiastes tells us “He has made everything beautiful in its time. Also, he has put eternity into man’s heart, yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end” (3.10). Sounds pretty straightforward. God knows all the ages, from the first of them, to the last of them. In between them are many “ends” to particular “ages”. Former ages. Past ages. ...

Yes, the Bible speaks of the “end of the [previous] ages” in Paul’s day. We can mark AD 70 as an “end of an age”. But, it didn’t end all ages. There are more to come. ... Paul spoke, “to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus throughout all generations, forever and ever. Amen” (Eph 3.21). This is a future reference to future “generations”. That little word, “all” there says a lot. God knows them all, from the first to the last (Isaiah 41.4). ... The Purpose of God has been set into motion before the end of Paul’s age ended. It was set into motion at the Cross. It redeemed the elect of the past ages, and redeemed the elect of the coming ages, as it redeemed the elect of Paul’s present age. One Church. One People. One God. One Eternal Destiny of Glory. ...  


John Owen made distinction as well between “last day” and “the last days”. The “last days” refer to the end of the Hebrew Commonwealth (Works of John Owen, Vol 19, 12-13). Whereas, if you read comments (sermons), on the resurrection of the dead, that is the “last day.”


I would also add Ephesians 1.10: “in regard to the dispensation of the fulness of the times, to bring into one the whole in the Christ, both the things in the heavens, and the things upon the earth — in him;” This phrase, “the dispensation of the fullnes of the times (plural)” encompasses “in the ages to come” (1.21). This is restoration language – united creation itself with the redemption in Christ (Rom 8.19-ff). It comes about in the “times” to come. Not all at once. It was inaugurated. It’s purpose was to bring to “all things” in unity with the Son AND the Church.

God with His People: one exodus after another

In the Beginning,

God brought forth the Heavens and the Earth into existence out of nothing,

order out from chaos,

light out from darkness,

dry land out from the waters,

every form of natural life out from sterile sands.


God brought forth the first man Adam out of the dust of the ground,

the first woman Eve out of Adam,

all mankind out of woman.


God brought the Garden of Eden out of the Earth,

God placed Adam & Eve into the Garden of Eden,

God exiled Adam & Eve out from the Garden of Eden to the east.


God brought Noah,his family and a remnant of the animals out from the pre-flood world into the ark,

out from the ark into the post-flood world,

every people group out from the family of Noah.


God brought forth every language from the Tower of Babel.


God brought Abraham's father Terah out of Ur of the Chaldees into Haran. 

God brought Abraham out of his father's house, a family of idol-worshippers, into friendship with God,

out of Haran into Canaan's land,

out of famine in Canaan's land into Egypt and wealth,

out of Egypt back into Canaan's land, the land promised to him & his Seed.


God brought Isaac out of the deadness of Sarah's womb and Abraham's old age,

and brought Isaac out from death when Abraham was about to sacrifice Isaac to God, 

God brought Rebekah out from her father's house in Haran to become Isaac's wife in the promised land.


God brought Jacob out from the status of second-born into the blessing of the firstborn,

out from his father's house into Haran to escape his brother Esau,

Jacob's four wives, childrens and herds out from Haran into Canaan's land to escape his uncle Laban.


God brought Joseph out from his father's house into Egypt to escape his brothers,

Jacob and his sons out from Canaan's land into Egypt to escape the famine.


God brought the Hebrews out of Egypt to escape the bondage of Pharoah,

out of golden calf worship into covenant with Himself,

out of lawlessness into the Law of Moses,

out of desert wanderings into the land promised to Abraham & his Seed.


God brought the best people out of corrupted Judah into Exile in Babylon,

a holy remnant of Jews & converts out of Exile in Babylon back into the Promised Land,

a portion of Jews & proselytes out of the Diaspora into the regathering in Israel.  


God brought the Jews who believed in Jesus out from the Law of Moses into the Gospel of Jesus Christ,

the New Testament people out from the Old Testament people,

the Church out from the Synagogue,

the New Testament out from the Old Testament,

the Gentiles who believed in Jesus out from idolatry into Christ, the commonwealth of Israel,

the believers in Christ Jesus out from the unbelievers of the World.


God brings the Elect, those who are "called, chosen and faithful," out from all trials among false brethren,

the obedient out from the disobedient,

from sin into righteousness

from bondage into the kingdom of the Son of His love,

from darkness into the light,

from ignorance into understanding,

from the natural to the spiritual,

from the temporary into the eternal,

from weakness into power,

from dishonor into glory,

from the earthly into the heavenly,

from the mortal into the immortal,

from a natural body into a spiritual body,

from glory into glory.


Historic Christianity says Millennium began in 1st Century

I.   The consensus of global, historic Christianity from earliest times until today maintains that the Millennium, (Latin, "thousand years"), began somewhere in the first century AD, whether that was at:

  •   1 AD:  The Birth of Christ
  • 30 AD:  The Baptism of Christ
  • 30-33 AD:  The Ministry of Christ (casting out demons from various individuals)
  • 33 AD:  The Crucifixion of Christ
  • 33 AD:  The Resurrection of Christ
  • 33 AD:  The Ascension of Christ
  • 33 AD:  Pentecost, the giving/baptism of the Holy Spirit
  • 70 AD:  The Destruction of Jerusalem (the Apocalypse)

This conviction was so deeply established within early, global, historic Christianity that any teaching of a Millennium whose beginning was still future was officailly denounced as heresy, the heresy of "Chiliasm."  And those who propose a Millennium that was yet to begin were formally rejected as heretics, "Chiliasts."  Chiliasm, (known today as "Premillennial Dispensationalism"), is alone in denying that the Millennium began in the 1st Century.  (Hyper-Preterism alone claims a Millennium that ended in the 1st Century).


II.   However, both Premillennial Dispensationalism and the consensus of global, historic Christianity from earliest times agree that:

  • The Thousand Years (Millennium) begins with the Resurrection of the Blessed & Holy Martyrs from the Tribulation, the First Resurrection of Rev 20:4,5,6.
  • The Dead in Christ Rise First as Christ Returns, 1 Thess 4:16.
  • This Rising of the Dead in Christ at Christ's Return had not yet happened as of the writing of  1 Thess 4:16 around 52AD.


III.   Notwithstanding, one of Premillennial Dispensationalism's objections to a 1st Century beginning for the Millennium has largely been adopted by mainstream Christianity herself, holding that:

  • The Resurrection of the Blessed & Holy Martyrs is the same as the Rising of the Dead in Christ. ("The First Resurrection" of Rev 20:4,5,6 = 1 Thess 4:16 "The Dead in Christ shall Rise First").


Conclusion:   The only solution that reconciles these mainstream views within historic and modern Christianity, that keeps the testimony of mainstream Christianity from contradicting herself, is a Millennium whose beginning is within the 1st Century but after the writing of 1 Thess 4:16 around 52AD.  Only the Millennium that began around the time of the Destruction of Jerusalem (the Apocalypse) in 70AD satisfies these requirements. 


It should be investigated whether the Anno Domini dating scheme that became popular after 800 AD was viewed as countdown to the dreaded end of the 1000-year Millennium (Latin, "thousand years"). 

Time Chart of Last Day-Millennium

Dramatic moves of God happen "at Twilight"

BC:  Before Christ Birth of Christ & John the Baptist 27-30AD: Christ's earthly ministry 30AD: Christ's Cross & Resurrection 30-70AD: Tribulation 70AD: Christ's Rapture-Return 70-1070AD: Last Day-Millennium 1070AD: end of Last Day 1070AD-Reformation: Satan released for "a little while" Reformation fire from Heaven: end of "the little while" of Satan's release Reformation-Forever:  Satan no more
Night Twilight dawn Day Twilight sundown: Passover was to be eaten "at twilight" Night Twilight dawn: Christ returns as "the Morningstar" as a thief in the last watch of the Night The Last Day (7th day, Sabbath) Twilight sundown: end of the 1000-years Day of the Lord Night Twilight dawn: "John Wycliffe, morningstar of the Reformation" Eternal Day (8th day, new week, new day)
Satan reigns through idol-worshipping empires Satan reigns through idol-worshipping empires Satan cast down from of Heaven to Earth, "fall like lightning" Evil principalities made a show by the Cross Satan prowls about Earth as roaring lion seeking whom to devour Satan chained, cast and sealed into the deep Abyss, Bottomless Pitt Satan remains imprisoned for 1000 years Satan released from his prison Satan organizes worldwide siege against Saints Satan cast into the Lake of Fire (Second Death) Satan remains forever in the Lake of Fire (Second Death)
Idolaters & unbelievers dominate the world Idolaters & unbelievers warned to escape coming wrath by John the Baptist Unbelieving Jews, Priests, Pharisees et al harass Christ Unbelieving Chief Priests arrange Christ's crucifixion Unbelievers harass the Saints & arrange their martyrdom Lord's enemies are destroyed, (Chief Priests, Pharisees, et al) Idolatrous empires destroyed, Christianized The Rest of the Dead come to life (Resurrection of Damnation begins) Gog & Magog form worldwide siege around the Camp of the Saints Gog & Magog destroyed by "fire from Heaven" (the Reformation) Unbelievers in subjection to Christian world powers
Saints under bondage to the Law of Moses Saints enjoy a shining lamp in the ministry of John the Baptist Saints finally meet the Messiah Saints are redeemed by the Lamb of God Saints martyred under Tribulation The Blessed & Holy come to life (Resurrection of Life begins) Resurrected Saints reign w/ God & Christ for 1000 years End of the 1000 years Saints besieged on every side by Satan-led armies Saints vindicated by sudden, miraculous rescue by "fire from Heaven" Saints continue to reign with God & Christ
Christ awaits His incarnation The Incarnation of Christ, "the Word becomes flesh & dwells among us" Christ's earthly ministry of healing all oppressed Christ, our Passover, lays down His life at the Cross & is resurrected Christ waits at God's side for Return w/ Kingdom Christ returns to Earth w/ His Kingdom & power Christ reigns w/ resurrected Saints & God End of the 1000 years Christ & Saints endure siege  Christ proven a better King than those of ancient Israel - no failure in time of trial Christ's Kingdom is an everlasting kingdom with no end
Second stone Temple, built at return from Exile Stone Temple completely rebuilt (replaced?) by Herod Great (3rd temple?) Jesus ministers in the stone Temple, prophesies its destruction & desolation Curtains of stone Temple completely torn, "Temple" redefined as Christ's body Stone Temple functions continue, willfully ignoring what had happened Stone Temple completely destroyed, "not one stone left upon another" The Body of Christ, the Church, is the only Temple of God on Earth End of the 1000-years Day of the Lord The Temple of God, ("Camp of the Saints"), besieged on every side Temple ("Camp of Saints") vindicated & rescued by "fire from Heaven" The sacrifices of God never cease, His Temple, (the Church), has no end

Why Prophecy and History?

One might well ask: "Why care about prophecy and history?"

Proverbs 21:5
The plans of the diligent lead surely to plenty,
But those of everyone who is hasty, surely to poverty.

Those who diligently make plans are those who:

  • Know somewhat about how things work (The Word of God is the single, best explanation of what is really going on here in life).
  • Know that there is reasonable expectation that those plans can be fulfilled. (That God does not oppose the plans).
If anyone should be diligently making plans, it should be those who know God's ways and believe that there remain no Bible-mandated cataclysms to prevent those plans; that God is for us, not against us, He is for our success, and not working to overthrow & replace all our best efforts to serve Him on behalf of humanity. Our Bible-inspired efforts to make the world a better place are not in vain. We can leave the people around us a legacy that blesses in life and guides to Salvation in Christ for generations. Long after his unjust death, the stirring legacy of Martin Luther King played a part in convincing me that only Christianity taught in a major-league way a loving concern for the peace of ALL people, not just those inside the chosen group - this, to me, was evident token of divine involvement.
So who will diligently make plans?
Who will be leaders, guides?
A qualified guide must know something more about the path ahead than those who follow his lead. Otherwise, there is no benefit.
  • Those who guide into next week must know something more about next week than those who follow.
  • Those who guide into next month, next year with their 5-years' plans, must know something more about the future than those who follow.
  • Those who have more accrurate insight into the future are the best suited to lead others there.
Preterist Christianity should offer a better insight into the future than any other. Preterist Christians, like Israel's tribe of Asher who "had wisdom regarding the times and the seasons" should be the natural choice for advising the leadership role regarding the future.
By better understanding where we have been in the past,
we offer a better understanding of where we are now.
By better understanding where we are now,
we offer a better insight of where we are going.
So how do we get there from here?
I am persuaded that Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God, knows better than anyone else knows how things really work - how to cooperate with God and successfully "work the system" in which the Father has set us.
The personal teachings of Jesus are recorded in Matthew, Mark, Luke & John. Among which are these,
John 13:20
"I tell you the truth, whoever accepts anyone I send accepts me; and whoever accepts me accepts the one who sent me,."
John 20:21-22
Again Jesus said, "Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you."
And so, by receiving the instruction of those sent by Jesus we are receiving further instruction by Jesus, the Son of God about how to get with the program and successfully "work the system" in which our Heavenly Father has placed us. Among those sent by Jesus was Peter. And Peter had this to say of Paul's instruction:
Peter 3:15-16
our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him. 16 He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand , which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures,
So we now have Jesus claiming as His own all the instruction of His immediate disciples and Paul's, i.e. the New Testament.
The New Testament communicates the principles by which we can apply the wisdom and the power of God to the situation in which we find ourselves and successfully guide our own lives into God's exceedingly great & precious Promises. The New Testament principles are timeless. Being faithful in this, we can become examples to many, successfully guide many, even humanity itself, into God's best future for all.
Further, since Preterist Christian teaching effectively draws the connections between God's prophesied judgments/promises and God's historical fulfillments, we can learn how God intends to respond to certain human behaviors - avoiding the consequences of repeating history's errors while actively emulating its successes. We can more safely guide into the future. We can prove to be the better choice for leadership into God's blessings for Humanity. We can & should lay the theological groundwork for the diligent plans that lead to plenty for everybody to the glory of God in Christ, the Savior of all men, especially of those who believe.
1 Timothy 4:9-12
9 This is a trustworthy saying that deserves full acceptance 10(and for this we labor and strive), that we have put our hope in the living God, who is the Savior of all men , and especially of those who believe.
11 Command and teach these things.
Hebrews 10:38
Now the just shall live by faith
The plans of the diligent lead surely to plenty.

There is No "Glass Ceiling" Blocking Mankind

God tells Mankind: "There is Water Out There in Outer Space"

We Choose to Go to the Moon and do the Other Things

Why should Prophecy + History connections matter?

It is a good thing to keep our focus on the invisible Cause even as we study the visible Effects of divine acitvity within human history. And it is a good thing to emphasize that the prophetic promises delivered by historical fulfillments are still only obtained by one's faith in Christ. For example, I see resurrected-glorified Saints reigning over the affairs of men from the unseen realm in the stead of the Eph 6:12 principalities-powers since the time of Christ's circa 70AD Return. These are Saints, brothers in the faith who have gone on to the invisible glory, having been perfected through suffering, biological death, then judgment and resurrection-glorification. This is very ancient and catholic doctrine, (in the original sense), the very basis for belief in glorified saints who have been bestowed with powers and authorities over affairs of mortal men. Such has been one of the strongest, oldest, and most widely held conviction among all the doctrines of Christendom, LINK, and is confessed in the ancient creed, "We believe in the communion of the saints."

So, while I agree that God's movements in the unseen realm are to be the centerpiece of Man's attention, I also concede that God's unseen movements have very real impacts upon the seen realm. This is why observations of history do, indeed, still have some merit. Still, it takes faith to see the hand of God moving through our lives and, indeed, through the histories of the lives of men, nations & civilizations.

Even as Jesus would use parables to describe heavenly concepts with very earthly object lessons, God works through history, intervening in our physical reality, to give us confirmable evidence as to His invisible rule from the spiritual realm.

It is important not to lose our awareness of landmark, documentable, historic points of contact between God & Mankind, fulfillments of prophecy. If we forget the mooring points between the Bible and documentable reality - then all we have left is a story that makes us feel better. Whether the story is true or not, it is no longer objectively confirmable - we only have the subjective witness of an inner, personal feeling. Some may call that "faith", but faith is blessed and stimulated by the witness of reality, too, Romans 1:1-4 & Romans 1:19-20. This is also why many believed following the miracles of Jesus and His Apostles and the holy exploits Christ's servants through the centuries since. Faith is established upon all the information by which God has surrounded us.

But floating a story along by a mere inner feeling, without verifiable connections between inward beliefs and outward experiences, leaves us unprepared for the day when we don't feel so good. That's when our feel-good story loses support and comes crashing down like a popped hot-air balloon. and we cannot reason to ourselves or others why "the greatest story ever told" is any more worthy of belief than the confused stories of any of the Christless false religions.

This is why our individual daily obedience is so key to continued faith: we accumulate memories of connections between inner belief and outer experience that provide an unfailing foundation for our faith through all of life's storms.

Matthew 7:24-27
"Therefore everyone who hears these words of mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who built his house on the rock. 25 The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house; yet it did not fall, because it had its foundation on the rock. 26 But everyone who hears these words of mine and does not put them into practice is like a foolish man who built his house on sand. 27 The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell with a great crash."

Likewise, the memory of prophecy-history connections is important. We remember that God is very much involved with Mankind, that He cares enough to intervene in our reality, that we are following something that is rooted deeply into reality and not just some cleverly designed fables. We are convinced that Jesus is the Truth: and that "truth" is just another way of saying "reality" even as "The Logos" can justifiable by translated "The Explanation (of Reality)." So, the Gospel is not just the greatest story ever told: no, the Gospel is far and away more than that. The Gospel is the single, best, most credible explanation of what's really going on that has ever been encountered, bar none. And any explanation of reality must interact credibly and frequently with reality, reality as we experience it, reality as men have recorded it diligently, painstakingly throughout the centuries.

That is why, I believe, God placed it upon my heart years ago to start drawing the connections between the Bible's prophecies and the Bible's own accounts of their historical fulfilments. Joseph's early dreams - Joseph later becoming Lord of Egypt & his brothers. The baker & wine taster's prophetic dreams - the fates of the wine taster & baker. Pharoah's prophetic dreams of good/bad cows - the historical reality of good/bad years. The prophetic promises of inheriting the Promised Land - the historic realities of Joshua's conquering & possessing the Promised Land. The prophecy that David would be king - the historic reality that David became king. The prophecies that the Jews would go into Babylon - the historic reality of the Exile. Malachi prophesying about the Elijah to come before the Lord - the historic reality of John the Baptist being that Elijah that was to come. The prophesies that the Messiah would be born Bethlehem - the historic reality that Jesus the Messiah was born in Bethlehem. Etc, etc, etc.... It seemed that God wanted me to pay careful attention to such connections as I would work my way through my One-Year Bible again and again as a prerequisite to ultimately gaining the ability to draw the connections between the New Testament's prophesies and their later, post-New Testament fulfillments. Perhaps certain blessings of understanding only come to those willing to do their homework. I hope to please the Lord with mine.

May the above be understood in a favorable light, not as an attempt to brag (about what, really?) but an attempt to explain my interest in the matter. It is my hope to show idealistic young people that their dreams of making the world a better place are not in vain, but rather, they are favored by God who is also working to make the world a better place, too. We have a brighter and brigher future ahead of us but it will take a stout optimism to overcome the giants we must face down with every generation. "The wicked flee at the sound of a leaf, but the righteous are bold as a lion." "Let us go up at once and take the land, for God has given it to us and we are well able to possess it!" Through faith in Christ born of a good understanding, we CAN conquer tomorrow for the benefit of our fellow men.

"You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, all your soul, all your strength and with all your mind."

Revelation 21:7
7 "He who overcomes shall inherit these things..."

1 John 5:4-5
4 For everyone born of God overcomes the world. This is the victory that has overcome the world, even our faith. 5 Who is it that overcomes the world? Only he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God.

May God bless the readers & myself with the spirit of wisdom & revelation in the knowledge of Him through Christ Jesus our Teacher,

What is the Preterist View of Bible Prophecy?

What is the Preterist View of Bible Prophecy?
by Ed Stevens


Is the End of the World near? Are we living in the Last Days? Is Christ's return at hand? For 150 years here in America we have constantly been told we were living on the threshold of the end of the world and Christ's return. Prediction after prediction has failed to materialize, and false hope after false hope has been foisted upon the Christian community. Many Christians have been disillusioned, and are already looking for more reasonable explanations. Some have been so disillusioned they left the faith altogether. And the secular media (who are always looking for an excuse) are further discrediting Christianity because of it. Something is terribly wrong with traditional views of Bible Prophecy. There is a serious need to re-examine the whole issue of Last Things.


Bible prophecy can be understood, but Futurist views have fallen far short for many reasons: their extreme physical/literalizing approach, their seeming inability to distinguish between figurative and literal language, and their failure to properly take into account the historical-grammatical-cultural context of the prophecies (specifically what they meant to their original audience).

Even the most difficult prophetic passage comes alive when approached properly. It is time to look at some alternatives, and the Preterist view is a great place to start.

David Roberts painting of the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.
"He takes away the first that He may establish the second."." ~Hebrews 10:9 NKJV
"But you have come to MountZion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem" ~Hebrews 12:21-22 NKJV


"Preterist" means past in fulfillment, and "Futurist" means future in fulfillment. Preterist basically means the opposite of Futurist. Futurists believe most end-time prophecies (especially the big three major ones - Parousia, Resur., and Judgment) are yet to be fulfilled. Preterists believe that most or all of Bible Prophecy (especially the big three events) has already been fulfilled in Christ and the on-going expansion of His Kingdom. Most Futurists do not really believe Christ has been successful yet in fully establishing His kingdom.


The "Preterist" interpretation of Bible prophecy has been mentioned several times in publications such as Christianity Today, Christian News, Great Christian Books catalog, World Magazine, and several others. There is already at least one daily radio program teaching from the preterist perspective and several monthly and quarterly publications. Scores of preterist books, tracts, video and audio tapes have been produced and many more are on the way. It is beginning to capture significant public attention, and is "spreading like wildfire" at the grass roots level. It is compatible with the essential beliefs of all Christians, and is already represented in nearly all Protestant denominations and the Roman Church.

When will Christ return? This question is relevant, and can be answered by scripture. Jesus seems to have answered it very clearly in these passages (Matt. 10:23; Matt. 16:27,28; Matt. 24:34). Ever wonder why the First Century Christians expected Jesus to come in their lifetime, and where they got this expectation from? Take a look at the extreme sense of imminency in these passages: James 5:8,9; 1 Pet. 4:7; Matt. 10:23; Matt. 16:27,28; Matt. 24:34. These verses have always troubled Bible students, and have been used by liberal theologians to attack the inspiration of Scripture. They reason that these passages were not fulfilled when they were supposed to be (the first century generation), so Jesus and the NT writers failed in their predictions and were therefore not inspired. But these verses point to Christ's coming in some sense in connection with the Fall of Jerusalem at 70AD. So, Jesus' predictions were fulfilled. He did not fail, nor do we need to engage in theological gymnastics to try to explain-away the seeming delay or postponement of His return. It happened right on schedule. Many knew the destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD was important in God's scheme of redemption, but never understood its full significance. It has to do with the consummation of the plan of redemption. The final events of the redemptive drama came to pass in the first century within the apostles' generation (before A.D. 70). Christ's kingdom is here now. Paradise has been restored in Christ (spiritually-speaking).

Christ has conquered all His enemies and has given us the Kingdom.

This view offers a much more positive and realistic worldview. It is conservative, consistent, optimistic, responsible and accountable. And it robs us of no motivation for either living the Christian life, or evangelizing the world. In fact, it's the only view which gives us a consistent reason for being constructively involved in making the world a better place for the long-term, unlike the short-term escapist and withdrawal mindset of most futurists.


Bible prophecy absolutely makes sense when approached from this past-fulfillment (preterist) perspective! It puts emphasis on the spiritual nature of God's Kingdom, not on the physical, materialistic, sensual, and sensational. It teaches a realized spiritual salvation in Christ and the Church now, instead of a frustrated hope for a postponed sensually-gratifying paradise way off in the future. It has an optimistic worldview that gets involved, makes a positive difference, and lights a candle, rather than cursing the darkness, longing for a rapture-escape, or retreating from society. It doesn't engage in wild-eyed speculation like futurist views. It's just simple, straight-forward Bible interpretation.

Some of the great theologians and scholars of the last 300 years have suggested the preterist view for consideration, but traditional Christianity was too caught up with the idea that the Pope was the Antichrist or some other such Futurist notion. But that has changed. We are not as gullible now as they were when William Miller, Darby, C. T. Russell, Rutherford, Scofield, Walvoord, and Hal Lindsey came along. A constant barrage of false predictions has made us more wary.


Most Christian theologians in Europe a century ago took a somewhat preterist approach, and none of them considered it unorthodox. One of the leading proponents of the preterist view back then was James Stuart Russell (not to be confused with the Jehovah's Witness founder with the same last name, Charles Taze Russell - there is no relation). J. S. Russell (1816-1895) published a book in 1878 entitled, The Parousia. We here at IPA recently reprinted it. Some leading theologians and Christian spokesmen have had the following to say about the book and the preterist view:

  • F. W. Farrar said Russell's book was "full of suggestiveness."
  • Charles H. Spurgeon, who did not accept the preterist view, nevertheless stated that Russell's book "throws so much new light upon obscure portions of the Scriptures, and is accompanied with so much critical research and close reasoning, that it can be injurious to none and may be profitable to all."
  • Walt Hibbard (Chairman, Great Christian Books) "In view of Dr. Russell's marvelous and insightful observations, no serious student of Biblical eschatology should attempt to construct a systematic scheme of apocalyptic events without first consulting this 19th century work, The Parousia."
  • Gary DeMar (President of American Vision) "How many times have you struggled with the interpretation of certain Biblical texts related to the time of Jesus' return because they did not fit with a preconceived system of eschatology? Russell's Parousia takes the Bible seriously when it tells us of the nearness of Christ's return. Those who claim to interpret the Bible literally, trip over the obvious meaning of these time texts by making Scripture mean the opposite of what it unequivocally declares. Reading Russell is a breath of fresh air in a room filled with smoke and mirror hermeneutics."
  • Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. (Sr. Pastor of Reedy River Presbyterian Church) "Although I do not agree with all the conclusions of J. Stuart Russell's The Parousia, I highly recommend this well-organized, carefully argued, and compellingly written defense of preterism to serious and mature students of the Bible. It is one of the most persuasive and challenging books I have read on the subject of eschatology and has had a great impact on my own thinking. Russell's biblico-theological study of New Testament eschatology sets a standard of excellence."
  • Dr. R. C. Sproul (Ligonier Ministries) "I believe that Russell's work is one of the most important treatments on Biblical eschatology that is available to the church today. The issues raised in this volume with respect to the time-frame references of the New Testament to the Parousia are vitally important not only for eschatology but for the future debate over the credibility of Sacred Scripture."
Many who never knew anyone else took the preterist view have independently discovered it in the Scriptures, and are finding Biblical prophecy bursting with meaning now. If you haven't taken a look at it, it is time you did. Write or call us here at IPA to obtain some of the books and resources mentioned elsewhere on this web site. These will help you finally make sense out of Bible Prophecy without being taken for a ride by the date-setters.


Click here to order a FREE packet of information about the Preterist view with a list of our latest books and media (USA residents only).

What is the Preterist View of Bible Prophecy?
by Ed Stevens

Application: What now?

"So, if all this is true and all this has already happened in the past, what do we do now? How does this change anything?"

  • Firstly, it takes the focus off of worldwide Tribulation alarm and puts it back onto personal, daily, longterm obedience to the New Testament as personal preparation to meet our Maker at death, a closer, more certain experience.
  • Because we have a theology that supports experience, we are prepared to believe reports by Christians throughout history & today of personal visits by Jesus Himself to individuals such as those He performed prior to His Ascension. The Chief Shepherd visits His flock and knows them by name. He lives among us. The Shepherd & Bishop of our souls is present to receive us at our death, that is, at our departure from this mortal, natural life. The Blessed Hope is real and is being experienced by those who are faithful to Christ: blessed are the pure in heart because they are actually inheriting the blessing of seeing their God who is near.  This near and Blessed Hope, this very real reward of the Inheritance, encourages to live holy lives, for, "The Lord is at hand," and "Without holiness no one shall see the Lord."
  • This awareness that all the fullness of the Godhead is living among us gives us great security in knowing that God the Father, His Son, His Spirit, His Saints & His angels are ever-present among us, whose dwelling is now among men to guard us through all difficulty, temptation and dread. Because God is with us, we have every confidence that we shall overcome the "giants in the land" of our times and conquer the future for our children, just as previous generations of Christians have done for us. 
  • We are encouraged to understand that our efforts to adorn the Gospel by making the world around us a better place are not in vain -- our improvements have God's blessing to be successful and remain as a lasting legacy to bless succeeding generations into faith in Jesus Christ.
  • We have a theology that supports the deeply rooted, historic confession, "We believe in the communion of the Saints" by which we understand that Christians that have gone on to be with the Lord Jesus are currently active in reigning with Him over the affairs of men, continuing on where their earthly ministries left off. This brings us into grace-multiplying fellowship with the innumerable company of Roman Catholic & Orthodox Christians worldwide and throughout history. We are encouraged to undestand that we, likewise, will continue our ministries into the afterlife if we remain faithful.
  • You are invited to a website designed around addressing that very question,


Power of Prophecy Fulfilled

One of the things I have tried to keep in mind in my every post is to emphasize the real-life ramifications of the reality of Christ's Tribulation-vanquishing Return: the extremely good news here to Christian & non-Christian alike is that the Blessed Hope is here among us now & forevermore! The occasional dark cloud is NOT to be feared, it is NOT the end of the world: it's just the end of an occasional bad day. Bright, sunny days will follow again and again - and we should make plans for them; plans that draw upon the full, realized & present power of Christ's Good News -the exceedingly great & precious promises, even the ones some Charismatics take to erroneous extremes- and lift up the arms of disheartened & distracted Humanity, energizing them to go to work for a reward that is certainly theirs, there remaining no Bible-mandated cataclysm to stand in the way.
World economies are wondering if nuclear fusion will come soon enough to replace the petroleum presently fueling the industrial engines of modern prosperity -prosperity which has even filled the minds of 3rd World paupers with visions of their own version of the American Dream. But the real source which propels Mankind's progress has always been and always will be the Hope of God, guided by the Wisdom of God, and moved forward by the Power of God - each made available by a good understanding of The Word of God, Jesus Christ Himself. The preterist view delivers some upgrades to that understanding necessary to getting our thrusters opened up wider for the heavy lifting soon to be required. We can do it. Christians are called by God -as kings & priests- to do it. Many are sitting on the sidelines or in the game half-heartedly because of they just cannot see clearly enough -they need the corrective lenses that the preterist view delivers.

Matthew 5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father

100 years ago, at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, Christians in many parts were praying to God, thinking surely the end of Mankind was near. "Men have discovered dynamite, developed machine guns, and promptly employed them in war against his own relatives [Civil War, etc]. With 1 billion people and exhausting soils in population centers like Europe, how can we go on? God help us!"

What happened? Some would trumpet -certain excesses notwithstanding- the Pentecostal movement beginning with the Azusa Street Revival which continues to be the most dramatic evangelizing movement on the face of the globe. Others could boast that the Wright Brothers inaugurate powered flight; Henry Ford delivers the automobile to the common man; Thomas Edison's labors to spread the marvels of electricity light up cities throughout the World; radio extends the ears of common men to hear the conversations within great cities; airplane-guiding radar; penicillin, wonder drugs; and polio-vanquishing vaccines; then television enabling the common man to gain the insights of world travel from his family room; jet propulsion; modern fertilizers converting worthless soils into fields 13 times more productive than virgin lands; camaraderie among governments via diplomatic efforts such as the United Nations; computers & Internet bringing organizational power to every human communication & plan, multiplying their efficacies; men on the Moon; the fall, exposure and demonization of militaristic approaches to human government exemplified by Nazis and Soviets; Martin Luther King guides the Civil Rights Movement, taking getting along among ethnic groups to a more sustainable level, this is now a worldwide movement etc. etc. These advances are a form of wealth. NONE OF THESE ADVANCES HUMANITY CURRENTLY DEPENDS UPON TO MAINTAIN A POPULATION APPROACHING 7 BILLION PEOPLE WOULD HAVE HAPPENED IF CERTAIN MOVERS & SHAKERS DIDN'T MAKE THEM HAPPEN - AND THEY MADE THEM HAPPEN BY THE HOPE WITHIN THEM THAT MANKIND WOULD BENEFIT FOR GENERATIONS. And we are presently living the dreams of our grandparents.
Proverbs 13:22 A good man leaveth an inheritance to his children's children: and the wealth of the sinner is laid up for the just.
The preterist view is the only capable vaccine against the hope-crippling virus spreading the mental disease commonly known as Endtimer's Dementia, Tribulation paralysis, Left Behind paranoia, etc.: disorders rampant among many Christians who would otherwise be out there working earnestly to give God's Hope, Wisdom, & Power to their sin-sickened surroundings. The preterist view -Christ Jesus' Good News view- is what delivers the hope that motivates movers & shakers to make the personal sacrifices necessary toward providing for Humanity's needs. "If a man will not work, neither shall he eat." God has a thing about us working for the things we need - even though He's ever present to help us. 2 Tim 2:6 The husbandman that laboureth must be first partaker of the fruits. [why? so that he does not faint from discouragement while laboring] The preterist view is the only Bible-compatible message capable of delivering to Bible-lovers the faith-sustaining encouragement to keep laboring to benefit Mankind in a temporal way: this only comes by way of certain knowledge that their labors will bring the harvest that benefits generations to come. These temporal benefits are lasting legacies that trumpet the practical byproducts of the Gospel that the sin-blinded can recognize as beneficial - making Christ's message attractive to them.
Gal 6:9 And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.

Matthew 5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

But without such tangible benefits recognizable as such by common men, it is difficult to make the case to them that the God of Christ has any understanding of Man's needs, or any feeling for his common sufferings. This difficulty is heightened all the more when Gospel-sharing Christians are found to resist necessary progress needful to Mankind's survival, having themselves succombed to the progress-stifling mental diseases of Endtimer's Dementia, Tribulation Paralysis, Left Behind Paranoia - each of which entirely preventable by the vitamins the preterist view makes available. The preterist view motivates those who are seated in heavenly places with Christ to excercise our talents to benefit those on Earth.

As the adage goes, "Don't be so heavenly minded that you become of no earthly good."

I'd like to review some more thoughts -thoughts that I think should grab many a young thinker I college now. Some to those who think the most altruistically, most idealistically, while putting practical efforts towards blessing their world for generations to come are those studying to be scientists - MIT, CalTech, Harvey-Mudd type people. And yet, these are the very people most turned off by conservative Christianity because of its dispensationalistic disdain for all things in preparation for the future. Preterism should be able to speak to them the Lord's Good News from an understanding that they cannot so readily reject outrightly - as they would anything else that is anti-progress.

But this view that virtually every Bible prophecy has already been fulfilled in the past has the effect of filling us with much needed optimism and confidence towards the future. We realize that there remains no Bible-mandated cataclysm dooming our best efforts to futility. It was this kind of optimism and confidence and energy that overcame every giant obstacle and carried men to the moon. With this kind of optimism and confidence we can invigorate our efforts to overcome every giant obstacle to make the world a better place, and bless our children and their children, our home countries, our hometowns. There is no glass ceiling hanging our Mankind's head preventing him from progressing forward into better times ahead. There is no end, no limits, no boundaries to human potential except those caused by our own ignorance & disobedience. Tommorrow is a blank page waiting to be written between God & us. God has invited us to co-author with Jesus -The Word- the great story of Humanity. Tommorrow is strictly determined by what we do with Jesus Christ today - not by fatalistic judgments upon previous generations - generations long since buried. We Christians get to be the Caleb's, the great, optimistic, hope-giving, visionary leaders among every generation, declaring before the daunting, giant obstacles of our times, "Let us go up at once and take the Land, for we are well able to overcome them!" (Numbers 13:30).

This is the great, overarching conclusion from the preterist view -good news that puts you in a good mood- makes you want to get to work for our futures with God, spiritual & physical, & for the benefit of all Mankind.
Matthew 5:14 Ye are the light of the world . A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.
Revelation 21:24 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it:
Matthew 5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father
Philippians 2:11 That every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
Romans 10:9 That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.

Bonus thought here: I lean toward thinking there is at least one promise/prophesy that is still working itself out over time, even our times: I anticipate the biological lifespans will be lengthening back up to rival the years of Adam (935) Methuselah (965) and all the rest.
Consider the following observations from the Text further below:
  1. Infants born, old men dying, sinners present = this is describing biological life, not heaven as many imagine it
  2. Someone who dies at a hundred will be considered to have died while yet a child, or having been under God's judgment (cursed) = again, biological life here, no one dies or gets cursed in heaven as many would imagine it
  3. "For the days of my people shall be as a tree" There are living sequoia trees thought to be close to 2,000 years old, living redwood trees as old as 900, about Adam's age at biological death.
Every now and again, science magazines report that the mysteries of the aging process are becoming understood, that it is conceivable that lifespans could be lengthened through this knowledge they diligently study Creation to obtain. From the perspective of the history of the common man's experience, lifespans have been steadily increasing around the world over the last centuries - thanks to better hygiene, healthcare, diplomacy, and technological advances that make biological life on earth more livable for the everyday nobody, the faceless masses so easily forgotten - but not by God. The promise of God, the intentions of studious men, and the trend of history all point toward the idea of your children living longer than you do, their children living longer than them, and so on -little by little. This is one reason why we have 7 billion people now as opposed to 1 billion just a century ago: they don't die off so fast. 7 billion people -from a global perspective- living better, heathier, richer, more educated lives with more leisure time and vacationing farther than ever before.
Isaiah 65:20-22
There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days: for the child shall die an hundred years old; but the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed. 21 And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them. 22 They shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall not plant, and another eat: for as the days of a tree are the days of my people , and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands.

Satan's Role in the New Covenant

Satan's Role in the New Covenant

Romans 16:20
By David B. Curtis

If we are going to understand Satan's role in the New Covenant, we must be willing to clear our minds of all the myths and legends that we have heard about Satan and look closely at what the Scriptures teach.

There is a myth that Satan is God's equal opponent- as if God is constantly battling Satan for sovereignty. Talking about the subject of salvation, I once heard a preacher say, "God votes for you, Satan votes against you, and you cast the deciding vote." I think that is how many people see it, like God and Satan are battling over the souls of men- as if they are equal and opposite foes. What does the Bible teach?

It teaches that God is Sovereign.

Romans 16:20 (NKJV) And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

Paul tells the Romans that God is about to crush Satan. If we look at the first appearance of Satan in the Bible, we see him coming under God's judgement:

Genesis 3:14-15 (NKJV) So the LORD God said to the serpent: "Because you have done this, You are cursed more than all cattle, And more than every beast of the field; On your belly you shall go, And you shall eat dust All the days of your life. 15 And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel."

To help us understand this, let's look at a couple of other translations:

Genesis 3:15 (NIV) And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel."

Genesis 3:15 (GWT) I will make you and the woman hostile toward each other. I will make your descendants and her descendant hostile toward each other. He will crush your head, and you will bruise his heel."

Who is the "he" in this text? We all know that this text is talking about Jesus. Satan will bruise Christ's heel but, Christ will crush Satan's head.

In the gospels we see Christ's complete control over Satan and his demons. Jesus Christ is God, and only God is omnipotent.

Revelation 19:6 (NKJV) And I heard, as it were, the voice of a great multitude, as the sound of many waters and as the sound of mighty thunderings, saying, "Alleluia! For the Lord God Omnipotent reigns!

The Bible teaches that God is sovereign. By sovereign we mean that God possesses and exercises supreme authority and control in all creation, including man.

1 Chronicles 29:11-13 (NKJV) Yours, O LORD, is the greatness, The power and the glory, The victory and the majesty; For all that is in heaven and in earth is Yours; Yours is the kingdom, O LORD, And You are exalted as head over all. 12 Both riches and honor come from You, And You reign over all. In Your hand is power and might; In Your hand it is to make great And to give strength to all. 13 "Now therefore, our God, We thank You And praise Your glorious name.

Isaiah 46:9-11 (NKJV) Remember the former things of old, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like Me, 10 Declaring the end from the beginning, And from ancient times things that are not yet done, Saying, 'My counsel shall stand, And I will do all My pleasure,' 11 Calling a bird of prey from the east, The man who executes My counsel, from a far country. Indeed I have spoken it; I will also bring it to pass. I have purposed it; I will also do it.

Psalms 115:3 (NKJV) But our God is in heaven; He does whatever He pleases.

God calls ALL the shots, He rules over all.

Isaiah 40:25-26 (NKJV) "To whom then will you liken Me, Or to whom shall I be equal?" says the Holy One. 26 Lift up your eyes on high, And see who has created these things, Who brings out their host ("the starry host" NIV) by number; He calls them all by name, By the greatness of His might And the strength of His power; Not one is missing.

God has the POWER to speak the universe into existence; to fill the oceans and scatter the stars through space; to stack mountains to the summit; to ignite the sun that maintains all life; to create man in his own likeness. God did it ALL.

The Scriptures show us that God exercises sovereign rule over all the physical universe; over plant and animal creation; over the nations of the earth; and over all individuals and angels including Satan:

Job 1:8-12 (NKJV) Then the LORD said to Satan, "Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God and shuns evil?" 9 So Satan answered the LORD and said, "Does Job fear God for nothing? 10 "Have You not made a hedge around him, around his household, and around all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land. 11 "But now, stretch out Your hand and touch all that he has, and he will surely curse You to Your face!" 12 And the LORD said to Satan, "Behold, all that he has is in your power; only do not lay a hand on his person." So Satan went out from the presence of the LORD.

Here we see that Satan is not an equal and opposite foe of God, Satan is subordinate to God. God tells Satan what to do and he does it. Satan is not omnipotent, his power is limited by what God allows him to do.

Another very prominent myth believed by many is that Satan is everywhere - he is omnipresent. How often have you heard someone say, "Satan never misses a church service"? A pastor said this in a message, "The Devil is real, real enough, but he is limited in power. He is the Tempter in the book of Job, the distraction, the quick fix and the short cut. He is even the half-price doughnut in the shop window to the overweight curate. The Devil persists in placing temptations in our way, and inviting us to turn from loving God. That is the power he has. In fact, that is all the power he has."

We often talk about him tempting us as if he can be everywhere at once. There is, however, only one being who can be everywhere at once; God.

Jeremiah 23:24 (NKJV) Can anyone hide himself in secret places, So I shall not see him?" says the LORD; "Do I not fill heaven and earth?" says the LORD.

Psalms 139:7-8 (NKJV) Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from Your presence? 8 If I ascend into heaven, You are there; If I make my bed in hell, behold, You are there.
God is omnipresent - all of God is in every place. All other beings known to man, including angels and demons, are restricted to a given place at a given time. When they are here, they are not there.

Satan is neither omnipotent nor omnipresent. We might be tempted to think of Satan on the same level as Jesus, but the Bible teaches that Jesus Christ is the Creator and Satan is a created being.

Another common myth is that Satan is the source of all our trials, problems, and difficulties. Back in the late 60's and early 70's, Flip Wilson had a saying: "The devil made me do it". And more recently Andrea Yates, the mother that killed her five children, said the same thing. She said that the devil made her do it. Is the devil the cause all our problems?

A commonly held view in modern christendom is that Satan is behind all the destructive and bad things that happen to us. But we already saw that God is sovereign and whatever happens in the universe happens because God wants it to:

Psalms 115:3 (NKJV) But our God is in heaven; He does whatever He pleases.

Since this is true, then God is responsible for the destructive and painful things that happen in our lives, not Satan. Do we charge God with wrong when we say this? To answer this question from the Bible, look with me at what Satan said to God in:

Job 1:11-12 (NKJV) "But now, stretch out Your hand and touch all that he has, and he will surely curse You to Your face!" 12 And the LORD said to Satan, "Behold, all that he has is in your power; only do not lay a hand on his person." So Satan went out from the presence of the LORD.

Satan asks God to stretch out his hand against Job. God responds by giving Job over to Satan's power. Notice what happens:

Job 1:19 (NKJV) "and suddenly a great wind came from across the wilderness and struck the four corners of the house, and it fell on the young people, and they are dead; and I alone have escaped to tell you!"

Who caused this wind that killed these young people? The text doesn't tell us who caused the wind to blow, but Job does:

Job 1:21 (NKJV) And he said: "Naked I came from my mother's womb, And naked shall I return there. The LORD gave, and the LORD has taken away; Blessed be the name of the LORD."

What had the "Lord" taken away? Well, for one thing, his children. Job says that God was responsible for the death of all his children. Was Job wrong in making this statement? Was it sin for Job to blame God for this? God's Word answers this question in the very next verse:

Job 1:22 (NKJV) In all this Job did not sin nor charge God with wrong.

The Bible clearly teaches that God, and not Satan, has power over life and death:

1 Samuel 2:6 (NKJV) "The LORD kills and makes alive; He brings down to the grave and brings up.

We want to blame everything that we feel is "bad" on Satan. But Scripture teaches that God controls everything, including sin:

Isaiah 45:7 (NKJV) I form the light and create darkness, I make peace and create (evil) calamity; I, the LORD, do all these things.'

The word translated here as: "calamity", is better translated: "evil". Now, when you say that God causes evil, most Christians go into paroxysms. Yet, the whole Bible is filled with this idea. Evil is something that most Christians would associate with Satan, not God.

One commentator remarks on the word "evil" in this text by saying, "The Hebrew 'ra'' is translated: 'sorrow, wretchedness, adversity, afflictions, calamities,' but is never translated: 'sin.' God created evil only in the sense that he made sorrow, wretchedness and so forth, to be the sure fruits of sin."

How could he have made such a statement? He must have examined every instance of "ra'" in the Hebrew text and have determined that in no case is it translated sin. If he, in fact, did study ever use of "ra'" in the Hebrew text, he would have had to have noticed that "ra'" in Genesis 6:5 and in a number of other places is translated: "wickedness." In fact, "ra'" is translated: "wickedness" some 50 times in the Old Testament.
Let's look at several places in Scripture where "ra'" is translated as: "evil".

Genesis 2:9 (NKJV) And out of the ground the LORD God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Genesis 2:17 (NKJV) "but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die."

The word "evil" in these verses is "ra'". Is this a knowledge of sorrow and calamity? No, it is primarily a knowledge of disobedience in sin.

Genesis 3:5 (NKJV) "For God knows that in the day you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil."

Genesis 3:22 (NKJV) Then the LORD God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil. And now, lest he put out his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever";

These verses refer as much to sin as they do to its punishment. What ever excuse can be given for excluding sin but retaining punishment in these verses is dispelled in Genesis 6:5 which is clearly a reference to sin.

Genesis 6:5 (NKJV) Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

God didn't see adversity or calamity in their hearts, he saw sinful thoughts. "Ra'" as used here clearly means: "sin". The same is true of:

Genesis 8:21 (NKJV) And the LORD smelled a soothing aroma. Then the LORD said in His heart, "I will never again curse the ground for man's sake, although the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; nor will I again destroy every living thing as I have done.

Toward the end of Genesis "ra'" refers to an alleged thief, many sins from which the angel had redeemed Jacob, and three times the brothers sin against Joseph. You can study the whole Old Testament for yourself, and you will see that "ra'" often means: "sin as distinct from its punishment".

2 Chronicles 29:6 (NKJV) "For our fathers have trespassed and done evil in the eyes of the LORD our God; they have forsaken Him, have turned their faces away from the dwelling place of the LORD, and turned their backs on Him.

2 Chronicles 33:6 (NKJV) Also he caused his sons to pass through the fire in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom; he practiced soothsaying, used witchcraft and sorcery, and consulted mediums and spiritists. He did much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger.

"Ra'" certainly means: "sin" in these verses. And the Bible teaches that God created it and foreordained it:

Amos 3:6 (NKJV) If a trumpet is blown in a city, will not the people be afraid? If there is calamity (ra') in a city, will not the LORD have done it?

God is in absolute control of everything that happens, both good and evil. God is sovereign. You understand that, don't you? I think you do, but do you understand that his sovereignty extends to our suffering, trials, and problems? It is not Satan that brings these things. It is biblically wrong to say that God merely permits suffering and problems. They are something that God is actively involved in. The Westminster Confession of Faith puts it this way:

God, from all eternity, did, by the most wise and holy counsel of his own will, freely, and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass (chapter 3, section 1).
The Bible puts it this way:
Ephesians 1:11 (NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestined according to the purpose of Him who works all things according to the counsel of His will,

God doesn't permit, he ordains! When we say that God permits something to happen, we often mean that God, in his heart of hearts, doesn't want a thing to happen but will allow it for some reason. This is not biblical. God works all things according to the counsel of His will. Or, as the NIV puts it, "Him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will." God does not merely permit our suffering and problems, he planned them. All that comes to pass in our lives is according to the eternal plan of the all-wise, all - powerful, and all - loving great God and our father.

The sovereignty of God is absolute, irresistible, infinite. God does as He pleases, only as He pleases, always as He pleases; whatever takes place in time is but the outworking of that which He decreed in eternity. So when you have problems, trials, pain, and suffering in your life it's not because of Satan, it is God who sovereignly controls all things.

God used Satan in the Old Covenant to carry out his will as we saw in Job. But Satan never did anything apart from the will of God. If Satan could act independently of God, God would not be sovereign.

We saw in Geneses 3:15 that God told Satan that He would "crush his head". We know this to be a prophecy of Christ destroying Satan. But when does it happen? Most Christians look for this event to happen at a future day when the earth and everything physical is destroyed. Perhaps a review of the scriptures will help clarify the matter:

Romans 16:20 (NKJV) And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

The KJV uses the word "bruise" instead of "crush." The Greek word used here is suntribo, it means: "to crush completely, i.e. to shatter".

When is it that Satan is to be crushed completely? It's at the end of the Old Covenant, when the Lord returned in judgement on Israel. Paul said here to the Roman Christians that it would happen "shortly". The Greek word translated "shortly"' is tachos. According to Arndt and Gingich Lexicon, tachos is used in the LXX and certain non-canonical writings to mean: "speed, quickness, swiftness, haste." Paul uses this same word in:

Philippians 2:19 (NKJV) But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you shortly, that I also may be encouraged when I know your state.

Paul says that he hopes to send Timothy "shortly." How soon is "shortly"? If you look at verse 23 he tells us:

Philippians 2:23 (NKJV) Therefore I hope to send him at once, as soon as I see how it goes with me.

I think that what Paul is saying here is, "As soon as I hear the outcome of my trial, I'm going to send him so you will know what is happening in my life." The Philippians were concerned about Paul, and he wanted to keep them informed. He was going to send Timothy to them just as soon as he knew the results of his trial.

The Bible says that Paul will send Timothy "shortly." Are you excited about Timothy's soon arrival? Why not? I don't know of any Christians that are looking for Timothy to arrive soon. Christians understand that Paul was speaking to the Philippians in the first century when he said this. They don't understand the "shortly" to be to them but to the Philippians of the first century. Why then, when it comes to the crushing of Satan, do they not take "shortly" in its first century context?

Christians expected Timothy to show up in Philippi in the first century, but they don't believe Paul that Satan was "crushed" in the first century. We must work to be more consistent in our hermeneutics.

Remember, audience relevance! Do you think that the believers at Rome could have conceived of 2,000 plus years as shortly? If it was to be some 2,000 plus years, how could he crush him under "their" feet? The people to whom this was written are dust now, they have no feet.

I believe that Satan is a defeated foe. I believe this because I believe in inspiration. Paul told the first century Roman Christians that Satan would soon be crushed completely. If Satan is still around than we have a problem with inspiration which is a huge problem, because if the Bible is not inspired by God, it is of no value to us.

Hebrews 2:14 (NKJV) Inasmuch then as the children have partaken of flesh and blood, He Himself likewise shared in the same, that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil,

One of the aspects of Christ's earthly mission was to destroy the devil. The Greek word for destroy is katargeo, which means: "to be entirely idle (useless), lit. or fig.:--abolish, cease, destroy, do away, make of no effect, bring to nought". Was Christ a failure in this mission? Most Christians act like he was, they're still all worried about the devil. I think we want him to still be around so we have someone to blame for our sin.

1 John 3:8 (NKJV) He who sins is of the devil, for the devil has sinned from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that He might destroy the works of the devil.

The Greek word for "destroy" is luo, which means: "to loosen, destroy, dissolve, put off". Christ is said to have destroyed the devil and his works. Do you believe the Bible?

Colossians 2:15 (NKJV) Having disarmed principalities and powers, He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them in it.

According to my Bible ,Satan is a defeated foe. Jesus Christ has conquered the devil.

The Lord Jesus accomplish what he came to do, and the Book of Revelation is the story of this accomplishment. The Lord's Day is the Day of the Lord's Wrath - not Sunday. It was the day that John the Baptist spoke about:

Luke 3:7 (NKJV) Then he said to the multitudes that came out to be baptized by him, "Brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Satan is no longer the "god of the age". Jesus now has the keys of death and Hades (Rev 1:18). In Chap 12 the devil stands before the woman to devour her son when he is born, but he is caught up to heaven to the throne of God. There is a war in heaven which Satan loses and he is thrown down to the earth. He knows that his time is short so persecutes the woman and her seed. I believe this chapter sums up the great events of the generation of Jesus and his apostles. We see Satan's judgement in:

Revelation 20:10 (NKJV) The devil, who deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet are. And they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.

What was Christ's purpose in becoming a man to die for our sins? Was it to restore man to the original garden paradise? Was His purpose to restore man in a perfect physical state free from disease and death? No! Christ's mission was a spiritual one that restores man to his relationship with God by making provision for sin and eternal death. So when we read in Rev 21 that the new heaven and new earth have come down and God dwells in the midst of it, we are reading about the completion of Christ's work for us. The real paradise of God has been restored. No sin is there; the blood of Christ covers it. No death is there; all things are made new. Those who are in Christ Jesus today have entered into this new relationship.

People are unable to accept that the Kingdom of God is a present reality. They look at the physical and think that Satan still exists. But in reality, Satan has been crushed. Satan has no power in the New Covenant, he is in the Lake of fire.

This message preached by David B. Curtis on March 24, 2002. Tape #241.

Inroduction to Last Day Timeline


  1. The Great Tribulation was to end and Kingdom of the Heavens, New Heavens, New Earth, New Jerusalem, Millennium & Judgment were to arrive with Jesus' 2nd Coming: John 14:1-3, Mat 25:31-46, Rev 20:11-15.
  2. Jesus said He would Return with His Kingdom & Power before all those who heard His preaching died, Matthew 16:28 & Mark 9:1
  3. The Dead in Christ rose first as Jesus
  4. Christ Returned at the Last Day as the Judge, John 6:40 & John 6:54 & 1 Thessalonians 4:16. This was the First Resurrection of the two foreseen in Rev 20:4-6, marking the beginning of the 1000 years. The Wicked One was destroyed by the brightness of Christ's coming, 2 Thess 2:8, sending Satan bound, cast & sealed into the Deep (Abyss, Bottomless Pit), Rev 20:1-3.
  5. This 1000 Years was as a Day with the Lord = Day of Judgment = Day of the Lord = Day of God which was still future as of the writing of 2Peter 3:4-12 & Rev 20:1-6. Satan remained bound, cast & sealed into the Deep (Abyss, Bottomless Pit) throughout this 1000 years, fulfilling what was foreseen in Rev 20:1-3.
  6. The Rest of the Dead were raised up at the end of this 1000-year-long Day of the Lord, Revelation 20:5a
  7. Satan was released after the 1000 years for a short time which ended with Fire from Heaven, (Reformation), Rev 20:7-10.
  8. The Reign of God, Christ & the Saints continues on perpetually, forever & ever without end. Amen.


Let us look at it again with more detail:

  1. Jesus was to come back before the Apostles' generation passed away. (Matthew 24:30 and Matthew 24:34), Preterism 101.
  2. He was to bring with Him the Home He went away to prepare for His followers, (John 14:1-3), The Heavenly Jerusalem = The Christian Community both Seen & Unseen.
  3. Paul & the churches already had the redemption/resurrection/raising up of their souls (aka "Eternal life"). All New Testament references to already “having been raised up” (Ephesians 2:6) or already “having been made alive” (Col 2:12-13 and Col 3:1) in past/present tense are referring to this redemption/resurrection of their souls that they had already. They had “eternal life” in their souls. They had eternity in their hearts, (Eccl 3:11). They each entered into it individually at baptism, the washing & regeneration, redemption & resurrection of their souls: their souls were saved. This was the guarantee towards that which they each yearned to obtain, "Having Eternal Life" is not equal to "The Resurrection of the Just".
  4. But Paul & the churches were looking forward to the redemption/resurrection/raising up of their bodies at Christ's Return, at the arrival of the Day of the Lord ( Rom 8:11 and Rom 8:23 and 1 Thess 4:13-18 to 1 Thess 5:1-2 and Phillippians 3:10-13 and 1 Cor 15:21-23 and 1 Cor 15:42-53 and 2 Cor 4:14 and 2 Tim 2:11-18). All of the future tense references to "resurrection" and "will be raised up" are correctly placed here, The Expectation and Logic of a 'Literal Catching Up' at AD 70 and Soul & Body: the 2 Parts of Resurrection.
  5. This "will be raised up" was to occur upon arrival of the Last Day, (John 6:54), and is quite distinct from the “having eternal life” they were already enjoying, 70AD: "The Last Day" & Christ Arrive, His Servants Raised to Reign.
  6. Preterism positions the arrival of the Last Day to be around 70AD: at the last day of the last physical Temple, its last animal sacrifices, its last generation of levitical priests, the last day of the ancient, earthly Jerusalem from below, (Gal 4:21-26). "He removes the first that He may establish the second," (Heb 10:9), Preterism 101.
  7. Revelation 1:1 announces that the visions that follow are predictive in nature, they portray in visual poetry "the things that must shortly come to pass" following the giving of the Revelation's visions to John by Jesus Christ around 63AD. Since these visions foretell events on God's itinerary, it is permissible to render John's use of "I saw" as "I foresaw." Rev 4:1 introduces the portrayal of events that were to occur shortly after its writing around 63AD. Rev 20:4 is a visionary vignette foreseeing this "raising up" of Christ’s followers upon arrival of the Last Day, as Jesus had promised in John 6:54. The souls of those who had been slain for serving Jesus, for rejecting the Beast and his mark, come to life, the "Resurrection the First." Blessed and holy are they that were to partake of it, and Paul wanted to be in that number, Phillippians 3:10-13.
  8. Per 2 Peter 3:8, the long anticipated “Day of the Lord" is “the thousand years,” and an actual 1,000 years as humans would count them comprises “the Day.” Just as the manna stopped appearing whenever the last day of the week (the Sabbath) arrived, (Exodus 16:25), Scripture stopped being produced when the Last Day arrived, 2 Peter 3:2-15 Day of Judgment = 1 Day with Lord = 1000 Years = Day of the Lord = Day of God.
  9. At the end of Rev 20:4’s thousand years "the rest of the dead" are raised, Rev 20:5. Christ's faithful martyrs from the Tribulation are raised up at the beginning of the Day, and the rest of the dead are raised up at the end of the Day, Rev 20:4 "come to life" = "come to life" of Rev 20:5.
  10. John established a pattern of introducing each visionary vignette with "And I saw," or perhaps better said, "I foresaw." The visionary vignette of Rev 20:11-15 introduces another immediate consequence of Babylon's Fall (Jerusalem's 70AD fall): the Judgment. Whoever's name was not written in the Lamb's Book of Life was to be tossed into the Lake of Fire, aka “The Second Death,” the final destination of Old Testament Death, Hell, etc. One does not escape Death & Hell by being sentenced to the same destiny. Christ-rejectors among “the rest of the dead” of Rev 20:5, who “lived again” at the end of “the thousand years,” awake to the condemnation of the Second Death, New Heavens, New Earth, New Jerusalem & "The 1,000 Years" each began at Return of Christ.
  11. Introducing again with, "And I foresaw," Rev 21-22 describes yet another immediate consequence of old Jerusalem's 70AD crushing: the coming down from the Heaven of that home for His People that Jesus brings with Him at His Return (John 14:1-13). “Whoever falls on this stone will be broken; but on whomever it falls, it will grind him to powder,” ( Mathew 21:43-45 ). This is good news because, "He removes the first that He may establish the second," (Heb 10:9). And, per Dan 2:34-35, this did not just crush the world of ancient Judaism, it crushed the whole world of Gentile paganism, "You watched while a stone was cut out without hands, which struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces. 35 Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold were crushed together, and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors; the wind carried them away so that no trace of them was found. And the stone that struck the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth." Daniel 2:31-45 The Stone that became a Great Mountain The times of the Gentiles' domination over God's People had ended at last. And the era of Christendom's dominion was inaugurated with the vanquishing of its first enemy, Revelation's Harlot. Within 250 years, the last world-dominating, pagan superpower was driven to its knees, declaring itself a Christian nation. And the dominant religion of the dominant world powers has been the religion of Christ ever since. There is neither biblical evidence nor historical trend that this will ever change.
  12. The prophecies of cataclysms, and all about the Beast and the Harlot, all that has happened in the past already. The same generation that saw Jesus minister and then leave also were the very same who saw His Return and all of the Tribulation that preceded that tribulation-vanquishing Return. As great a tribulation God’s People shall never see again. This knowledge fills us with much needed optimism and confidence towards the future: there remains no Bible-mandated cataclysm dooming to futility our good-hearted efforts to make the world a better place. It was this kind of optimism and confidence and energy that overcame every giant obstacle and carried men to the moon and back alive. And with this kind of can-do optimism and confidence we can invigorate our efforts to overcome every giant obstacle to make the world a better place, and bless our children and their children, our home countries, our hometowns. There is no glass ceiling hanging our Mankind's head preventing him from progressing forward and upward into better times ahead. There is no end, no limits, no boundaries to human potential except those caused by our own ignorance & disobedience. Tomorrow is a blank page waiting to be written between God & us. God dwells among men, (Rev 21:3 and John 14:21-23 and Matthew 1:23). And God has invited us to co-author with Jesus -The Word- the great story of Humanity’s future. Tomorrow is strictly determined by what we do with Jesus Christ today - not by fatalistic judgments upon previous generations - generations long since buried & judged. We Christians get to be the Caleb's, the great, optimistic, hope-giving, visionary leaders among every generation, declaring before the daunting, giant obstacles of our times, "Let us go up at once and take the Land, for we are well able to overcome them!" ( Num 13:30 ), The Power of the Preterist View.

A) There are ongoing elements of the New Covenant beginning about the time of Christ's first appearrance and never ending: Eternal Life (aka redemption/resurrection of the souls of believers); the ministry of the Word of God and the Holy Spirit; the Everlasting Covenant in Christ's Blood, that is, the eternal, unchanging Law of Christ.

B) However, the bulk of the events predicted in the New Testament and foreseen in Revelation were completed in full by 70AD and left behind an example of how God judges human affairs: the detailed sequences of trumpets, vials etc. of the predicted vengeance upon ancient Jerusalem/Babylon and the Beast and False Prophet, etc.

C) There are temporary elements that began at Christ's second appearance around 70AD and ended an actual 1,000 years later: the sealing of Satan bound &cast into the Bottomless Pit; and the reign of the Tribulation's resurrected martyrs ruling over human affairs from the invisible, spiritual realm - (much as Middle Age Catholicism perceived the martyred Saints to have received delegated authorities from the Chief Martyr - minus the doctrines about directing prayer to these martyred-yet-living-and-involved Saints, of course).

D) There are ongoing elements beginning at Christ's second appearance around 70AD and never ending: the Resurrection the First, the Judgment, the Second Death aka Lake of Fire; the new order of the New Heavens; New Earth; New Jerusalem, the reign by all of the Saints forever & ever, etc.

E) However, there are certain temporary elements that began an actual 1,000 years after 70AD and ended shortly afterward: the temporary release of Satan to attempt to reprise his ancient role as the organizational head over evil spiritual influences whereby the Pre-Parousia world order was organized into saint-harassing, idol-worshipping empires whose leaders demanded worship. This period was cut short by God's rescuing vindicaton of the New Jerusalem Camp of the Saints with spiritual fire from Heaven, (early Reformation fires), resulting in Satan's final sentence to the Second Death aka Lake of Fire.

F) There are ongoing elements beginning an actual 1,000 years after 70AD and never ending: the rest of the dead coming to life again, awakening to their Judgment sentence.

G) And finally, there is an ongoing element beginning after the period of Satan's release (after the 1,000 years after 70AD) and never ending: Satan remains forever in the Second Death, (aka Lake of Fire), since the time of the coming down of fire from Heaven.

70-1070AD A Brief Introduction to the 70-1070AD Millennium

The major features of one's end-time belief (eschatology) can be readily communicated by where he places "The Millennium" upon the timeline of God. This is because eschatology's grandest events are organized around these "1000 years," also known as, "The Day of the Lord," (2 Peter 3:6) The Resurrection of Christ's Triibulation-martyrs at His Return demarks the beginning of the "1000 years" (Rev 20:4 & 1 Thes 4:16) and the Resurrection of the rest of the dead demarks the end of the "1000 years," (Rev 20:5). Therefore, by telling us where one places the Millennium on a timeline, he also tells us when Christ Returns, when the first resurrection takes place as well as the Day of Judgment and the resurrection of the rest of the dead. With this in mind, the major eschatological positions are each described in terms of where they place the Millennium on a timeline:

Premillennial - The 1000-year Millennium will begin with Jesus' future Return; view known previously as "Chiliasm."

Mine is NOT one of the major eschatological positions of our times. I take a historical preterist position and hold to an endpoint to Rev 20:1-10's "1000 years" an actual 1000 years after the Lord's 70AD Return. This position may be succinctly described as "70-1070AD Millennium." What follows are introductory details:

Sola Scriptura (Scripture Alone determines orthodoxy, correct teaching) will permit only one of four possibilities:

a) "1000 years" = a 24-hour day

I reject a) as a reasonable possibility because that would make the very long anticipated 1000-year reign of the Saints with Christ become a mere 24 hours; a farce.

I reject c) as a reasonable possibility because Rev 20:1-10 clearly demarks the beginning and ending points of the "1000 years" by certain, anticipated, landmark events. The "1000 years" is clearly described, therefore, as a finite period of time.

I reject d) as a reasonable possibility because God expects us to understand His Word. "Study to show yourselves approved unto God, a workman that need not be ashamed, rightly understanding the Word of Truth," 2 Timothy 2:15. Everything in the Bible was written to be understood by men. And God has provided us with 2 Peter 3:7-12 which associates the term "1000 years" with "the Day of the Lord." This clues us to understand that all the references to the anticipated "Day of the Lord" refer to a lengthy span of time, a 1000 years.

Only b) remains for consideration, then: Rev 20:1-10's "1000 years" can only be an actual 1000 years as humans count them: the prophecy was given to humans to bless them when they understand it upon reading. 2 Peter 3:3-14 describes the anticipation for the Day of God since the dawn of human history. And the heart of the passage firmly announces that Day would be as (equal to) a 1000 actual years as humans count them. Rev 20:1-10's "1000 years" = "Day" of 2 Peter 3:3-14 as well as other New Testament references to the anticipated "Day" whether referred to as "The Day of the Lord," "The Last Day," " The Day of God," "The Day of Judgment," etc. The Day was at hand when Paul penned 2 Thessalonians 2:2 and Romans 13:12 around 52AD and 56AD, respectively.

Historical Preterism has, to me, the most sound argument for the arrival date of "The Day of the Lord": that is, within the lifetimes of the Apostles, around the time of ancient Jerusalem's fall in 70AD.

Putting these together, I arrive at the fulfilled view that Christ Returned around 70AD as He performed the first resurrection of the two resurrections described in Rev 20:4-6. This first resurrection was also foretold by 1 Thess 4:16-17. "The rest of the dead did not come to life (resurrected) until the 1000 years were completed" following that closely anticipated first resurrection, per Rev 20:4-6. That would place the resurrection of the rest of the dead around 1070AD. That resurrection of the rest of the dead was as unseen to the natural eye as the first resurrection had been 1000 years prior at Christ's Return, 1 Thess 4:16-17. These epoch events inaugurated ongoing processes of judgment and resurrection-transformation of both the Just and the Unjust following each one's biological death whereupon their souls each give account for the deeds done in their natural-mortal bodies. The natural-mortal bodies of each, upon receiving judgment, are resurrected-transformed to animate new bodies: the Just to the resurrection of Life and the Unjust to the resurrection of Damnation (Lake of Fire / Second Death).

Following Augustine's teaching a 1-1000AD or 70-1070AD Millennium, much of Christendom of that period believed themselves to be living in a 1-1000AD Millennium. By the same teaching, much of Christendom believed their world to be ruled over by resurrected-glorified martyr-Saints who, following their deaths & resurrections, had received delegated authority from Christ over the various powers in the Creation, whether that be safety in travel, or on the seas, or whatever, displacing the rule of the former, pagan gods. (Taken to the hyper-extreme, this is where some jumped off into praying directly to various resurrected-glorified Saints who specialized in answering certain types of prayer requests. Notwithstanding, all prayer is to be directed to God the Father in the name of Jesus the Son).

The great reformer Martin Luther, following up on Augustine's teaching of a 70-1070AD Millennium, taught a 1000-year Millennium that began at the time Revelation was penned and ended at the 1073AD inauguration of Pope Gregory VII (who inaugurated various audacious papal claims to world authority). Martin Luther believed himself and the Reformers to be living in the period of Satan's Release that follows the Millennium, Rev 20:7. (He calculated it to be a period of 666 years from 1073AD to 1739AD, from Pope Gregory's inauguration through the times of the Reformers. This was part of their doctrine that the Roman Pope was the anticipated Antichrist).

Concerning the timing of the 1000-year Millennium, my view is in very close agreement with that of Augustine and Martin Luther.

More about Martin Luther and Augustine's eschatology may be found at:

Further introduction to the 70-1070AD Millennium may be found at:

The subject of Resurrection is treated at:

70-1070AD The Elegance of the 70-1070AD Millennium

Just because one has some correct ideas does not mean all his ideas are correct. Max King is magnificently correct in making the 30AD Cross to 70AD Return connection, while embarrassingly wrong in regards to his 30-70AD Millennium, (which leads to Universalism, LINK). Gideon was fantastic in his victory over the Midianites, but devastatingly dissappointing in his later idolatry. Conversely, just because someone is off on some things does not mean he is off on all things. A humble man will learn from everywhere he can, (Job 34:3 1 Thessalonians 5:21). Only Christ, the Word of God who became flesh, is the only man who is 100% correct 100% of the time with 100% of the explanations & answers. But that's why we need eachother, to allow Christ via the Holy Spirit to teach us, moving through one then another as the Spirit wills to do so (1 Cor 14:26-32). And we recognise Christ among us by His Word. Here's an excerpt from something I e-mailed last night to someone about this:
Someone might ask, "What do you think of simplifying it down to '30-70AD Millennium' vs. '70-1070AD Millennium'?" Now some have attempted to characterise the 70-1070AD Millennium as Partial-Preterism because we both declare that the 1000 years begin at 70AD rather than end there. But what distinguishes the 70-1070AD Millennium from Partial-Preterism is that it announces the end date of the 1000 years residing in our past already. The reality of it is that by putting an actual end date on the completed Millennium, it brings it all under the umbrella of "the past" (preterist) and avoids the unsatisfactory, worn-out, classic "Preterist v Partial-Preterist" stale rehash. It shows that if "Partial-Preterism" can make an adjustment towards a 100% completely fulfilled eschatology, then perhaps the 30-70AD Millennium crowd, ("Full" Preterism), could make an adjustment of similar magnitude and we find ourselves in a newfound powerful agreement in the middle: a happily united front of fulfillment eschatology.
What is so elegant about this adjustment towards a 70-1070AD Millennium, also, is that this adjustment clears up so many of the unnecessary and loathsome byproducts of "Full" Preterism (30-70AD Millennium) such as: unorthodox soteriology (universalism) and non-corporal, Gnostic-like deviations from orthodox resurrection. (I'm confident the Reformers approve of neither deviation). It also eliminates the betrayals of the time-text hermeneutics (J.S. Russell) that deduce the 70AD Return in the first place.
Additionally, the 70-1070AD Millennium delivers the full goods that Partial-Preterism falls short of. It pays respect to the glory days of Orthodox and Catholic, as well as to the Reformation. It agrees with Premillennial Return of Christ, while insisting upon Jesus' generation as the generation that saw Mat 24's fulfillment. It rejoices with the hope of Postmillennialism, but is free of its futurist loose ends. And it provides Amillennialism's millennial-agnosticism with a truly reasoned, credible, satisfying and long longed-for answer: we can know, we do know. And it opens up a new frontier of study: How the hand of God moved through the ages to forever establish Christendom in the dominant world position and bless ordinary men, thus satisfying the Historicist school while careful to point out to the delight of Idealists that all these fulfillments in physical history actually point towards the movements and glory of God from the unseen, invisible realm of the Spirit.. We get powerful internal support of Scripture-Scripture, convincing external support of Scripture-History, and a strong eschatological frame upon which sound, time-tested, classic theology handsomely fits.
  1. Jesus said He would Return with His Kingdom & Power before all those who heard His preaching died, Matthew 16:28 & Mark 9:1
  2. Jesus raised up the Dead in Christ first as He Returned at the Last Day, John 6:40 & John 6:54 & 1 Thessalonians 4:16
  3. Rev 20:1-10's 1000 years began at this raising up of these Dead in Christ, the First Resurrection of Revelation 20:4-6
  4. This 1000 Years was as a Day with the Lord = Day of Judgment = Day of the Lord = Day of God which was still future as of the writing of 2 Peter 3:4-12
  5. The Rest of the Dead were raised up at the end of this 1000-year-long Day of the Lord, Revelation 20:5a, in agreement with the ancient Church Creeds of the Middle Age.

Fuller outline ne found at: Brief Surveys of Last Day Timeline

Ultimately, what we're trying to do here is to proclaim the message of Christ to the modern generations that live in the 3rd Millennium since the Gospel's first proclamation among men.
And this is love, that we walk after Christ's commandments. ~2 John 6

An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline


An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline

By Stavros L. K. Markou

Dates are given according to the Orthodox determination of years since the time of Adam, and according to the contemporary usage of "BC" and "AD" as invented by Dionysius Exiguus. However, please take note that the Orthodox year begins in September, whereas the system of Dionysius Exiguus begins each year from January. Also, there is no year zero, and the years 1 BC and 1 AD are the exact same year according to the Dionysian system, being divided at the point of December 25. Also note that Dionysius Exiguus made an error of 8 years in determining the year of Christ’s birth.

From Adam


Event (approximate dates given)


5508 BC

Adam and Eve are fashioned and placed in Paradise. But the serpent (Satan) tempts them to disobey God's commandment, and for this, they lose God's grace and are cast out of Paradise. Adam is cursed to die that same "day." Enmity is to arise between the serpent's seed and the woman's. The former will bruise the latter's heel, but the latter will crush the former's head. This is fulfilled at the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

5279 BC

—Seth is born when Adam is 230 years old.

5074 BC

—Enos is born when Seth is 205 years old.

4884 BC

—Kainan is born when Enos is 190 years old.

4714 BC

—Maleleel is born when Kainan is 170 years old.

4578 BC

—Adam dies 70 years short of living a full "day" (1 day = 1000 years).

4549 BC

—Jared is born when Maleleel is 165 years old.


4508 BC

—First age ends, second age begins.

4387 BC

—Enoch is born when Jared is 162 years old.

4367 BC

—Seth dies aged 912 years.

4222 BC

—Mathusala is born when Enoch is 165 years old.

4167 BC

—Enos dies aged 905 years.

4035 BC

—Lamech is born when Mathusala is 187 years old.

4022 BC

—Enoch is raised up into heaven, aged 365 years.

3974 BC

—Kainan dies aged 910 years.

3847 BC

—Noah is born when Lamech is 188 years old.

3819 BC

—Maleleel dies aged 895 years.

3587 BC

—Jared dies aged 962 years.


3508 BC

—Second age ends, third age begins.

3344 BC

—Shem is born when Noah is 503 years old.

3258 BC

—Lamech dies aged 777 years.

3253 BC

—Mathusala dies aged 969 years.

3247 BC

Great Flood. World perishes. Noah, his wife, his three sons and their wives are saved.

3245 BC

—Arphaxad is born when Shem is 100 years old.

3115 BC

—Kainan is born when Arphaxad is 135 years old.


3008 BC

Construction of Babylon and Tower of Babel begins. Great Dispersion later follows.

2980 BC

—Sala is born when Kainan is 130 years old.

2897 BC

—Noah dies aged 950 years.

2850 BC

—Heber is born when Sala is 130 years old.

2716 BC

—Phaleg is born when Heber is 134 years old.

2586 BC

—Ragau is born when Phaleg is 130 years old.


2508 BC

—Third age ends, fourth age begins.

2454 BC

—Seruch is born when Ragau is 132 years old.

2324 BC

—Nachor is born when Seruch is 130 years old.

2145 BC

—Tharrha is born when Nachor is 179 years old.

2215 BC

—Approximate date of Abraham’s birth.

2140 BC

Abraham is called out of Ur in Chaldea to the land of Canaan. He is chosen by God to be the founder (Patriarch) of a new nation that will prepare the world for salvation.

2129 BC

—Approximate date of Ismael’s birth when Abraham is 86 years old.

2116 BC

—Approximate date of the Circumcision of Abraham and his household. The True God is revealed to mankind for the first time since the fall of Adam. Abraham is visited by three Persons representing the Holy Trinity, whom Abraham worships as one God. Covenant (promise) is made between God and Abraham, and Abraham's seed. God, in the Person of His only-begotten Son, is to be born of Abraham's linage through his wife Sarah.

2115 BC

—Approximate date of Issac’s birth when Abraham is 100 years old.

2055 BC

—Jacob and Esau are born when Isaac is 60 years old.

1940 BC

—Tharrha dies in Charrhan, aged 205 years.

2040 BC

—Approximate date of Abraham’s death, aged 175 years.

1800? BC

—Joseph, a Hebrew, is sold by his brothers to Egyptian merchants. He later becomes a prominent figure in Egyptian government. Hebrews are invited by him to dwell in Egypt to escape famine. Centuries later, animosity arises between Egyptians and Hebrews.


1508 BC

—Fourth age ends, fifth age begins.


1508 BC

Moses leads exodus from Egypt. Hebrews travel for 40 years in the desert. During this time, God reveals Himself at Sinai and bestows the Decalogue (Ten Commandments).

1408 BC

—By this time the Hebrew nation settles in the land of Canaan. Moses does not set foot in the promised land. He reposes in the desert and is lifted up by angels into heaven.

1058 BC

—Philistines conquer Israel. Saul is anointed as first King of Israel.


1008 BC

David is King of Judea and later of Israel. Philistines conquered. Jerusalem captured.

958 BC

Solomon is King of Israel. Temple of Jerusalem is dedicated. Kingdom is divided between Israel in the north under Jeroboam and Judah in the south under Rehoboam.

858 BC

—Prophet Elijah lives and prophesies. He is lifted up into heaven on a fiery chariot.

758 BC

—Prophet Isaiah lives and prophesies.

753 BC

Traditional date of the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.

722 BC

—Sargon II of Assyria sacks Samaria. Kingdom of Israel is brought to an end. The people of the northern kingdom are scattered. They become the ten "lost tribes" of Israel.

682 BC

—Judah surrenders to Assyria.

608 BC

—Josiah, king of Judah, is defeated and killed by Egyptians at the Battle of Megiddo.

605 BC

—Nebuchadrezzar II defeats Egyptians and brings Judah under Babylonian rule.

586 BC

Destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's Temple by Nebuchadnezzar. Populace is deported and enslaved in Babylon. This marks the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity.

539 BC

—Babylon is conquered by the Persians under Cyrus the Great.

515 BC

Having returned from captivity, the Second Temple is constructed and completed.


508 BC

—Fifth age ends, sixth age begins.

445 BC

—Walls of Jerusalem are rebuilt by Nehemiah.

334 BC

Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire. Judah brought under Hellenic rule.

200 BC

—Books of the Prophets, previously kept as tradition, are officially declared as canonical.

141 BC

—After several years of revolt, Jerusalem is finally liberated.

120 BC

—Hebrew scriptures are translated into Greek by 72 elders, creating the Septuagint.

63 BC

Romans led by Pompey the Great capture Jerusalem and annex Syria and Judea.

40 BC

—Marc Antony in Rome appoints Herod the Great as King of Judea.

27 BC

—The Roman general Octavian declares himself Roman Emperor and changed his name to Augustus Caesar. It is at this point that the Roman Empire is established.

20 BC

—Herod begins to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem.


8 BC

The Incarnation of our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ. The Virgin Mary conceives of the Holy Spirit on March 25 according to the Roman (Julian) calendar, which, in this year, corresponds with Nisan 15 (the first day of Pascha) according to the Hebrew Calendar.

7 BC

—Our Lord, God and Savior Jesus Christ is Born of the Virgin Mary on December 25.

14 AD

—Tiberius becomes Roman Emperor.

18 AD

—Caiaphas is elected High Priest in Jerusalem.

26 AD

—John the Baptist begins preaching. He baptizes Jesus in the River Jordan. A great voice is heard from the Father in heaven "This is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased," and the Holy Spirit descends upon Christ in the form of a dove. Christ begins His ministry.

31 AD

Jesus Christ is crucified under Pontius Pilate at the behest of the Scribes and Pharisees. On the third day, Sunday, March 25 according to the Roman (Julian) Calendar and Nisan 15 (first day of Pascha) according to the Hebrew Calendar, our Lord, God and Savior, Jesus Christ, rises from the dead. He ascends into heaven forty days later. Fifty days after His resurrection, he sends down the Holy Spirit which proceeds from the Father. The Holy Spirit enlightens the Apostles and the Church on earth is born.

32 AD

—The 11 apostles convene a council in Jerusalem to select a disciple to replace Judas Iscariot as the 12th apostle. Lots are drawn and Matthias is elected and ordained.

33 AD

—The 12 apostles convene a council to elect seven deacons to serve the Church.

45 AD

Council of Jerusalem, presided over by St. James, the Brother of the Lord, Bishop of Jerusalem, and attended by Sts. Peter, Paul, Barnabas, and other apostles and elders. The council condemns the Judaizers, and declares that Gentiles need not convert to Judaism, or be circumcised, nor follow the Mosaic Law, to become Christians (Acts 15).

56 AD

—Council of Jerusalem, presided over by St. James, and attended by St. Paul and his disciples, as well as all the elders of the Church in Jerusalem (Acts 21).


—Following a revolt, the Romans sack Jerusalem and destroy the Temple. Hebrews are exiled. Christian spiritual center is moved from Jerusalem to Antioch, whereas the Jews and those Christians of the circumcision (Judaizers) travel to Arabia and elsewhere. It is at this point that the Jews and Judaizers are scattered and divided from the Church.

155 AD

—Council of Rome, presided over by Bishop Anicetus and attended by St. Polycarp of Smyrna and others, in order to settle the issue concerning the date of Pascha. An agreement is not met, but the two opposing camps maintain ecclesiastical communion.

193 AD

—Council of Rome, presided over by Bishop Victor, condemns the celebration of Pascha on Nisan 14, and addresses a letter to Polycrates of Ephesus and the Churches in Asia.

193 AD

—Council of Ephesus, presided over by Bishop Polycrates, and attended by several bishops throughout Asia, reject the authority of Victor of Rome, and keep the Asian paschal tradition.

217 AD

—St. Callistus is elected Bishop of Rome, but St. Hippolytus objects and has himself elected. After St. Callistus's repose, his successors Urban and Pontianus take the throne. St. Hippolytus continues as rival bishop of Rome until he is reconciled and later martyred.

251-6 AD

—Council of Carthage, presided over by St. Cyprian, and attended by 71 fathers from Numidia and other parts of Africa. This council holds five sessions over the course of five years, but is considered one council. It condemns Novatians (those who refuse to accept sinners or to receive Christians who had lapsed during the persecution) and sets requirements for readmission into the Church for those who had lapsed. This council also rejects the teaching of Bishop Stephen of Rome in regards to baptism outside the Church. The baptism of heretics is declared invalid. Heretics are to be readmitted into the Church through baptism and chrismation, and priests through the laying-on of hands.

258 AD

—Council of Iconium, presided over by St. Firmilian of Neo-Caesarea, and attended by fathers from Cappadocia, Lycea, Galatia and other parts of Asia. It rejects the teaching of Pope Stephen of Rome, and confirms the decrees of Carthage in regards to the rebaptism and re-ordination of converts baptized or ordained by heretics.

264 AD

—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Firmilian of Neo-Caesarea, and attended by several fathers, condemns the Paulians (later known as Sabellians), who believe that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are one and the same person (prosopon).

306 AD

—Council of Elvira, presided over by St. Hosius of Cordova, and attended by 19 bishops all together, imposes celibacy on clergy and forbids converts from heresy to ever be ordained to the priesthood. This local council is never accepted by the Easterners.

311 AD

—Council of Carthage, presided over by Donatus, and attended by several African bishops, rejects the ordination of Pope Caecilian of Carthage by Felix of Aptunga, owing to the latter's supposed lapse during the persecutions, and elects Majorinus as rival Pope of Carthage. This council causes the Donatist schism.

312 AD

—Roman Emperor Constantine the Great converts to Christianity.

313 AD

—Constantine signs the Edict of Toleration in Milan, ending the persecution of Christians.

314 AD

—Council of Ancyra, presided over by St. Vitaly, Patriarch of Antioch, and attended by 18 fathers. It is the first council to be held after the end of the persecutions. It condemns those Christians who lapsed from the faith in order to escape persecution; It formulates punishments for the lapsed, and also punishments for various types of immorality.

314 AD

—Council of Arles, attended by bishops from Gaul and Britain, condemns Donatism (the schism of Carthage) and establishes 22 canons concerning church order and discipline.

315 AD

—Council of Neo-Caesarea, presided over by St. Vitaly, and attended by 23 fathers all together. It establishes punishments for immorality and outlines the qualifications and criteria of worthiness for the election of clergy to the sacerdotal list.

325 AD

Council of Nicea, (First Ecumenical - Imperial Council), convened by Roman Emperor, St. Constantine the Great. It is attended by 318 fathers, including Sts. Athanasius the Great, Nicholas of Myra, Spyridon of Trimythus, Alexander of Constantinople, Alexander of Alexandria, Eustace of Antioch, Macarius of Jerusalem, and the legates of St. Sylvester of Rome. It condemns the Arians (also known as Lucianists, who believe the Son was created), Paulians (also known as Sabellians, who believe the Father, Son and Holy Spirit is the same person), Quartodecimans (those who celebrate Pascha on Nisan 14) and Meletians (those who caused a schism and parallel hierarchy in Egypt). This council also formulates the Nicene Creed, sets a united date for celebrating Pascha, condemns mandatory celibacy for clergy, establishes regulations on morality and discipline, decides Christians ought to stand, not kneel, while praying on Sunday, and establishes Rome, Alexandria and Antioch as the three equal spiritual centers (Patriarchates) of Christianity.


The Capital of the Roman Empire is moved to New Rome (Constantinople). The Imperial Court and a large part of Old Rome's population moves to the new capital.

335 AD

—Council of Tyre, convened by Emperor St. Constantine the Great, presided over by Eusebius of Caesarea, and attended by 120 bishops. Although it does not reject the decisions of Nicea, this council does at least incline towards Semi-Arianism, and manages to depose St. Athanasius the Great and several other Orthodox bishops.


—Council of Gangra, presided over by Eusebius and attended by 13 bishops all together, condemns a form of Manichaeanism (those who forbid marriage, the partaking of meat, obedience to lawful authority), and prohibits Christians from fasting on Sundays.

341 AD

—Council of Antioch, convened by Roman Emperor Constantius, presided over by Eusebius of Constantinople (New Rome), and attended by 120 fathers all together. It reinforces the rule of Nicea for the common celebration of Pascha, establishes regulations regarding the organization of local (regional) churches, and the use of canonical letters by travelers for verification of their canonical standing in the Church.

347 AD

—Council of Sardica, convened by Roman Emperors Constantius of New Rome and Constans of Old Rome, presided over by Hosius, bishop of Cordova, and attended by 370 fathers. It is convened to exonerate Sts. Paul of New Rome, Athanasius the Great of Alexandria and Maximus of Jerusalem, as well as Marcellus of Ancyra and Asclepas of Gaza, who had been deposed in 335 at the Council of Tyre under Eusebius of Caesarea. The Easterners agree to be present at the council of Sardica, but upon discovering that the deposed clergymen are to be given seats at the council, the Easterners depart for Philippoupolis where they hold a council of their own. The Westerners continue at the council of Sardica at which they confirm the Nicene Creed and establish several canons concerning church discipline. They proceed to depose 11 of the Easterners who departed for Philippoupolis on the charge of Arianism, whereas they exonerate and annul the depositions of Paul, Athanasius, Maximus, Asclepes and Marcellus. However, this council errs in its exoneration of Marcellus in that the latter is indeed a heresiarch (Marcellianism).

347 AD

—Council of Philippoupolis, attended by 76 bishops who had departed from Sardica. It confirms the Nicene Creed and condemns the extreme form of Arianism, as well as Tritheism and Sabellianism. In addition to re-deposing Paul, Athanasius, Maximus, Asclepas and Marcellus, they also depose Pope Julius of Rome, Hosius of Cordova, Protogenes of Sardica, and several others who participated in the Sardican council. Thus, the Easterners and Westerners excommunicate each other on the grounds of heresy.

359 AD

—Council of Seleucia, attended by several bishops, including St. Meletius, rejects the Nicene Creed and adopts the Acacian formula, which inclines towards Arianism. St. Meletius later rejects this formula and confesses the Nicene Creed, after which he is installed as Patriarch of Antioch in 360. Shortly thereafter he is exiled, and Euzoius (an Arian) is appointed to succeed him. Simultaneously, Paulinus (an extreme Anti-Arian who inclined towards Sabellianism) is ordained bishop of Antioch by Lucifer of Calaris, and leads the Eustathian faction. Later, Vitaly is ordained bishop of Antioch by the heretical Apollinaris. Each of the four rival bishops of Antioch are recognized by different Local Churches. For instance, the majority of the Easterners recognize the Arian Euzoius; the Churches of Egypt, Cyprus, Arabia, Africa and the West recognize Paulinus; the Cappadocians recognize Meletius, but the Asians recognized Vitaly.

362 AD

—Council of Alexandria, attempts but fails to bring an end to the Antiochian schism.

363 AD

—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Meletius, attended by 26 bishops, confirms the Nicene Creed and attempts but fails to bring an end to the Antiochian schism.

364 AD

—Council of Illyricum, convened by Roman Emperor Valentinian, condemns Arianism and confirms the Nicene Creed. It also addresses the Churches in Asia, Phrygia, Carophrygia and elsewhere, to convene a similar council against the Arian persuasions which had arisen among them. Thus, the council of Laodicaea is held the same year.

365 AD

—Council of Laodicaea, condemns Arianism, confirms the Nicene Creed and established several canons concerning church order and discipline.

369 AD

—Council of Rome, presided over by Pope Damasus, signs a tome confirming Nicea, condemning Arianism and calling the Easterners towards healing the schism.

378-9 AD

—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Meletius, and attended by 150 bishops, recognizes the tome of the Westerners in regards to healing the Antiochian schism.

381 AD

Council of Constantinople (Second Ecumenical), convened by Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great, presided over at first by St. Meletius of Antioch, and, following his repose, by St. Gregory the Theologian, Patriarch of New Rome, and attended by 150 bishops of both east and west. It condemns the Arians (also known as Eunomians or Eudoxians, who believe Christ is created, and of a completely different essence to the Father), Semi-Arians (who believe Christ is of a similar, yet different, essence to the Father), Macedonians (or Pneumatomachi, who believe the Holy Spirit is a mere creature), Apollinarians (who believe Christ has a human body and soul, but not a human rational mind), Sabellians (who believe the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are one and the same person), Marcellians (who believe the Son and Holy Spirit are not eternal persons, but are transitions of the Father that would again unite into one person with the Father at the end of time), Photinians (who believe Christ is a mere man), Millenarians (who believe in the literal thousand-year reign), and Quartodecimans (who celebrate Pascha on Nisan 14). This council reaffirms that Christians must stand while praying on Sundays and the days from Pascha to Pentecost. It recognizes Old Rome, Constantinople (New Rome), Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem as the five spiritual centers (Patriarchates) of the Christian Empire. This council also attempts to resolve the Antiochian schism since St. Meletius had reposed. St. Flavian is elected and enthroned as his successor. However, he is later rejected by the bishops of the West, Egypt, Arabia, Africa and Cyprus, who recognize Paulinus, and later his successor, Evagrius, as Bishop of Antioch.

382 AD

—Council of Rome, presided over by Pope Damasus, attended by Jerome, Epiphanius of Salamis, Paulinus of Antioch and others, attempts but fails to heal the Antiochian Schism.

394 AD

—Council of Constantinople, local council, presided over by St. Nectarius of Constantinople (New Rome), and attended by 20 bishops all together, establishes regulations for church discipline, especially in regards to ordinations and depositions.

395 AD

—Roman Emperor Theodosius I divides the Roman Empire into East and West to be governed by his twin sons, the Roman Emperors Arcadius and Honorius, respectively.


—Council of Toledo, condemns Priscillianism (a form of Gnosticism or Manichaeanism, which follows dualistic ideas, of good and evil, light and darkness, spirit and flesh).


—Council of Seleucia, at which the Assyrian Church declares itself independent of St. Flavian of Antioch, thus forming the autocephalous archdiocese of Seleucia-Ctisephon.


—Vandals sack Old Rome, marking beginning of barbarian invasion of Empire's West.

415 AD

—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Flavian, and attended by Evagrius and the Eustathian faction, finally brings a successful, permanent end to the Antiochian schism.

419-24 AD

—Council of Carthage, local council, presided over by Pope Aurelius of Carthage, and attended by 217 bishops all together. It condemns the Pelagians (who deny original sin and grace) and Donatism (who reject the ordination of those who had lapsed during the persecution), denies the jurisdiction of the Pope of Rome in the African Church, enumerates canon of Holy Scriptures (Old and New Testaments), and prohibits the rebaptism or re-ordination of those baptized or ordained by Donatists.

431 AD

Council of Ephesus (Third Ecumenical), convened by Emperor Theodosius II, presided over by Pope St. Cyril of Alexandria, and attended by more than 200 fathers. It condemns Nestorianism (the belief that the person of Christ consists of two hypostases, a human and a divine, and that the Theotokos is therefore to be called Christotokos, as if Christ is not God). It also confirms the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, and declares any additions or subtractions to it are henceforth forbidden. It is also declared that bishops are not to interfere in the vicinities and dioceses of other bishops.

441 AD

—Council of Orange, local council, presided over by St. Hilary of Arles, and attended by 17 bishops all together, formulates canons concerning Church order and discipline.

448 AD

—Council of Constantinople, local council, presided over by Patriarch St. Flavian of Constantinople (New Rome), condemns Eutychianism (the belief that the person of Christ consists of one hypostases but also only one nature).

449 AD

—Council of Ephesus (Robber Synod), convened by Emperor Theodosius II, presided over by Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria, and attended by 127 bishops. It falsely styles itself the so-called "Fourth Ecumenical Council." It exonerates Eutyches who had been deposed by the local Council of Constantinople a year earler, condemns Eutyches' accuser, St. Flavian of Constantinople, and also Domnus of Antioch, Eusebius of Dorylaeum, Ibas of Edessa and others, on the charge of supposed Nestorianism.


—Council of Nicea, local council, presided over by Dioscorus of Alexandria and attended by 11 bishops, excommunicates Pope St. Leo of Rome on the charge of Nestorianism.

451 AD

Council of Chalcedon (Fourth Ecumenical), convened by Emperor Marcian and his wife Empress Pulcheria, presided over by Eusebius of Dorylaeum, and attended by 630 bishops all together. It condemns Eutychianism as well as the Monophysitism of Dioscorus (the belief that the two natures of Christ had become one nature after the Incarnation), exonerates those who had been unlawfully deposed by the Robber Council, rejects the acts of that council, except those found to be Orthodox and canonical.

453 AD

—Barbarians under Attila the Hun invade Italy.

457 AD

—Following the murder of Proterius, the Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, the Monophysite faction within Egypt uncanonically elects Timothy Aelurus in his place. This is followed by a struggle between the Orthodox and Monophysites for the patriarchal throne. Similar rivalry also arises at the Patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem.

476 AD

—Western Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus, residing in Ravenna, is deposed by Odoacer, the commander of the Western army. Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno proposes Odoacer to be the new Western Emperor, but Odoacer declines the offer, returning the Imperial Regalia to Constantinople. Upon receiving the Western Regalia, the Roman Empire is reunited, and Zeno becomes sole Roman Emperor of both East and West.

482 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened by Emperor Zeno, presided over by Patriarch Acacius, and attended by several Orthodox and Monophysite bishops. It formulates an henoticon (union) which compromises both the Orthodox and Monophysite positions in order to form a swift union between the two opposing camps. At this time the sees of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem are occupied by the Monophysites Peter Mongus, Peter the Fuller and Theodosius respectively, and they accept the henoticon with the Orthodox Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople. The Monophysites who reject the henoticon sever communion with their patriarchs and become known as Acephali. The Orthodox who rejected the henoticon, partiularly the Pope of Rome, sever communion with Acacius and the patriarchates of the Eastern Empire. This schism lasts until 519 when the Easterners reject the henoticon and return into communion with Rome.

484 AD

—Council of Seleucia, presided over by Acacius, and attended by 12 bishops. It rejects the Council of Ephesus, the Robber Council, as well as the Council of Chalcedon. It also establishes canons regarding marriage after ordination to the deaconate, and celibacy for priests. It is at this point that the Assyrian (Nestorian) Church of the East falls into schism.

491 AD

—Council of Varlasapat, at which the Armenians within the Persian Empire condemn the Council of Chalcedon. However, communion with the Orthodox is later restored.


492 AD

—Sixth age ends, seventh age begins.

493 AD

—Ostrogoths sack Ravenna, the last of the most important Roman cities in the West.

518 AD

—Council of Constantinople, at which Severus of Antioch is deposed for Monophysitism. He rejects his deposition and his followers divide into several groups. The Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria is also deposed, and his failure to recognize his deposition leads the Copts into schism from the Church.

519 AD

—Council of Constantinople, at which union is restored with the Church of Rome.

527 AD

—Council of Dovin, convened and presided over by Catholicos Nerses II of Armenia, embrace Monophysitism and causes the Armenian church to again fall into schism.

529 AD

—Council of Orange, local council, presided over by Caesarius of Arles, and attended by 14 bishops, condemns Semi-Pelagians (who deny the necessity of grace in salvation).

532-7 AD

—Roman Emperor Justinian I begins and completes the construction of the Great Temple of Holy Wisdom (Haghia Sophia) on the ruins of a previous temple. The new temple becomes the very center of Roman Orthodox Christianity for centuries to come.

541 AD

—Council in Antioch, convened and presided over by Jacob Bardaeus, officially accepts Monophysitism and forms the Jacobite Syrian Church, in schism from Roman Orthodoxy.

553 AD

Council of Constantinople (Fifth Ecumenical), convened by Roman Emperor Justinian I, presided over by Menas of Constantinople, and attended by 165 bishops. It is convened firstly in order to condemn Origenism (belief in the preexistence of souls, reincarnation, that hell is only temporary, that demons will be saved, that there will not be a bodily resurrection, that various inanimate objects contain souls), and secondly in order to condemn the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrus and Ibas of Edessa, on the charge of Nestorianism. These latter condemnations are hurled mainly to please the Monophysites, making union more possible. Thereby it appears that the council is siding with the Monophysites. Pope Vigilius of Rome disagrees at first but is later convinced to sign the edict. This, however, causes schisms in the West.

553 AD

—Council of Carthage condemns the edict that attempts to please the Monophysites and deposes Pope Vigilius of Rome for signing the edict.

553 AD

—Council of Aquileia, presided over by Macedonius, condemns Pope Vigilius for signing the edict, and declares Macedonius to be independent Patriarch of Aqueleia.

559 AD

—Council of Toledo, convened by the Gothic King Richard, in order to combat Arianism which is widespread among the Gothic barbarians who had invaded from the north. In its attempt to dispel Arianism, this council adds the clause filioque ("and the Son") to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed in regards to the procession of the Holy Spirit. This addition is contrary to the Second Ecumenical Council which had forbidden any additions.

626 AD

—Avars lay siege to Constantinople, but Roman defense is successful. Akathist Hymn is composed in honor of the Holy Theotokos to thank her for her intercession during the war.

631 AD

—Cyrus, formerly bishop of the Lazi, is appointed Patriarch of Alexandria, and through his Monothelite teachings (his belief that Christ possesses only one, divine will, energy and operation), manages to draw the great majority of Coptic Monophysites back into the fold of the official Church. The Copts thus abandon Monophysitism, but at the expense of the official Church's Orthodoxy. The compromise on the part of both camps is welcomed by the Emperor and soon the Monothelite heresy spreads throughout the entire Empire.

632 AD

—Adopting Christian, Arian, Gnostic, Jewish and Pagan elements, Mohammed of Arabia establishes a new heretical form of Christianity (Mohammedanism), which is declared a new religion under the banner of Islam (meaning "submission"). Its followers are called Muslims. Islam begins to spread rapidly throughout the Middle East and North Africa.

638 AD

—Council of Constantinople, local council, presided over by the Monothelite Patriarch Sergius, composes an exposition based on a heretical letter by Pope Honorius of Rome, and sends this to all the Patriarchates declaring it to be the official teaching of the Church. The Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem duly accept it, being occupied by Monothelites. Rome, after the death of the heretical Pope Honorius, returns to Orthodoxy.

643 AD

—Council of Cyprus, local council, presided over by Archbishop Sergius, condemns Monothelitism as expressed in the heretical exposition of Constantinople.

646 AD

—Council of Carthage, presided over by Pope Victor, also condemns the exposition.

648 AD

—Council of Dovin, convened and presided over by Catholicos Nerses III of Armenia, accepts the Council of Chalcedon and enters again into communion with the Roman Orthodox Church, based however on the Monothelite compromise.

649 AD

—Council of Rome, local Lateran council, presided over by Pope St. Martin, and attended by 105 bishops, and St. Maximus the Confessor, condemns the Monothelite exposition, and the heretical Popes, Patriarchs and Bishops that adhered to and promoted it.

664 AD

—Council of Whitby, convened by King Oswy of Northumbria, presided over by Bishop Agilbert of the West Saxons, and attended by hierarchs of both the Celtic and Roman Churches of Britain. It condemns the Celtic calculation of Pascha (first Sunday between Nisan 14 and 20) in favor of the Roman (Alexandrian) rule (first Sunday between Nisan 15 and 21), and replaces other Celtic practices with those used by the Christians of the Roman Empire. The Celtic Church of Britain submits to the Roman Orthodox Church.

680-81 AD

Council of Constantinople (Sixth Ecumenical), convened by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, presided over by St. George of Constantinople, and attended by 170 fathers. It condemns Monothelitism and anathematizes the Monothelite Patriarchs Cyrus of Alexandria, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul and Peter of Constantinople, Pope Honorius of Rome, and Bishop Theodore of Pharan. They are then replaced with Orthodox successors.

682 AD

—Council of Alexandria, at which the Copts who had compromised to Monothelitism during the times of controversy, reject the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council, and return into schism, not as Monophysites as earlier, but this time as Monothelites.

686 AD

—Council of Antioch, at which several deposed Monothelite bishops attended, rejected the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council, and elected John Maro as a rival Patriarch of Antioch, thus forming the Monothelite (Maronite) schism from the Orthodox Church.

692 AD

Council of Trullo in Constantinople (Quintisextine - Fifth-and-Sixth Council), convened by Roman Emperor Justinian II Rhinotmetus, presided over by Paul of Constantinople, and attended by 327 bishops, establishes canons regarding church order and discipline, canons which the Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils had been unable to establish.


—Council of Aquileia, at which the Patriarch of Aquileia reunites with the Pope of Rome.

751 AD

—Lombards sack Ravenna, the most important Roman stronghold in the West.

754 AD

—Council of Hiereia in Constantinople (also known as the Iconoclastic or Mock Council), convened by Roman Emperor Constantine V Copronymus, presided over by Archbishop Theodosius of Ephesus, and attended by 338 bishops all together. It falsely styles itself the "Seventh Ecumenical Council." It condemns the writing of icons, or the painting of pictures, and forbids the veneration of images on the charge of idolatry.

787 AD

Council of Nicea (Seventh Ecumenical), convened by Empress Irene and her infant son Constantine VI, presided over by Patriarch Tarasius of Constantinople, and attended by 350 Orthodox bishops, and 17 iconoclastic bishops who repent and are received back into Orthodoxy by the council itself. It annuls the decisions of the Mock Council of 754 and condemns Iconoclasm, while restoring the veneration of the sacred icons.

787 AD

—Council of the Carolingians (Iconoclastic Council), convened by the Frankish Barbarian King Charles the Great (Charlemagne), presided over by Patriarch Paulinus of Aquileia, and attended by bishops from the Carolingian Kingdom, Aquileia and Britain, rejects the Holy Seventh Ecumenical Council of 787 and insists upon the addition of the filioque in the Creed, following the error of the Gothic Council of Toledo in 559. The Carolingians also demand Pope Hadrian of Rome to accept their decision, but he refuses, not only by recognizing the Seventh Ecumenical Council, but also by rejecting the Carolingian Council, as well as rejecting the filioque clause that the false council promotes.

794 AD

—Council of Frankfurt (Iconoclastic Council), convened by Charlemagne. It condemns Adoptionism (the belief that God is the natural father of Christ's divinity, but is the Father of Christ's humanity only by adoption). However, this council also continues in the error of Charlemagne, in that it condemns the Seventh Ecumenical Council of 787. It also condemns Pope Hadrian due to his acceptance of the Seventh Ecumenical Council. Charlemagne declares the Roman Empire to no longer be Roman and Orthodox, but rather "Greek" and "heretical," while he, a Frankish barbarian, styles himself and his barbarian subjects "Roman." This council also defends the heretical addition of the filioque to the Creed, despite its staunch rejection by Pope Hadrian of Rome. Charlemagne charges the Eastern Romans with heresy only to discredit the Roman Emperor. Charlemagne plans for himself to be crowned Roman Emperor of both East and West. He charges the Easterners with heresy to support his political agenda.

796 AD

—Council of Frioul, convened by Charlemagne, presided over by Patriarch Paulinus of Aquileia, defends the insertion of filioque in Creed, despite Pope Hadrian's resistance.


—Council of Rome, convened by Charlemagne, presided over by Pope Leo III, and attended by mostly Frankish bishops. The council restores Pope Leo III to his rank after he had been forced to flee Rome due to accusations of immorality held against him. However, Charlemagne captures and banishes Pope Leo's accusers. In return, Pope Leo III is forced to crown Charlemagne as "Holy Roman Emperor," even though he has no connection with the true Roman Empire governed from Constantinople (New Rome). The true Roman Emperor, Constantine VI, rejects Charlemagne's claims to Roman Imperial authority. The crowning of Charlemagne forms a political schism between the true Romans in east and west, and the Franko-Latins who falsely style themselves "Romans" and dare to call all the true Romans "Greek heretics."

809 AD

—Council of Aachen, convened by Charlemagne, presided over by Patriarch Paulinus of Aquileia, and attended by Frankish bishops, again condemns the Seventh Ecumenical Council, requests Pope Leo III to annul the Western Church's acceptance of the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and declares the filioque necessary for salvation. Pope Leo III, however, rejects this council, declares his acceptance of the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and refuses to add the heretical filioque to the Creed. Pope Leo demonstrates this by ordering the Creed to be engraved in Greek and Latin and hung on the doors of St. Peter's according to the original Orthodox version, without the heretical filioque clause.

815 AD

—Council of Constantinople (Iconoclastic Council), convened by Leo V the Armenian, presided over by Patriarch Theodotos, and attended by Eastern bishops, orders icons in churches to be placed beyond the reach of the faithful to prevent their veneration.

825 AD

—Council of Paris, convened by Frankish barbarians, again condemns the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and again insists that the filioque must be used by all Christians.

842-43 AD

Council of Constantinople ("Triumph of Orthodoxy"), convened by Roman Empress Theodora, presided over by Patriarch Methodius of Constantinople, and attended by several Orthodox hierarchs, annuls the Iconoclastic Council of 815 and restores the veneration of the holy icons. The iconoclasts and all other heretics are anathematized.

860-64 AD

—Roman Orthodox monks, Cyril and Methodius, travel to the Caucasus and Crimea in order to convert the pagan Turkic Khazars. However, the latter embrace Judaism and become the ancestors of the majority of the world's future Jews. Cyril and Methodius later travel to Moravia where they successfully convert the Moravian Slavs to Orthodoxy. Soon thereafter, they begin converting the Bulgarians who had invaded Macedonia and Thrace.

861 AD

—Council of Constantinople ("First-and-Second" or "Twice-Held" Council), convened by Roman Emperor Michael, presided over by Patriarch Photius, and attended by 318 bishops of both east and west, in order to resolve a dispute over Patriarch Photius of Constantinople who had been enthroned after the deposition of his predecessor, Ignatius. The council, including the Papal legates, confirms the deposition of Ignatius and declares Photius to be the lawful Patriarch. Several canons are also formulated.

863 AD

—Council of Rome, convened and presided over by Pope Nicholas, uncanonically deposes Patriarch Photius and declares the deposed Ignatius to be Patriarch of Constantinople. This uncanonical council is rejected by the Easterners.

867 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened by Roman Emperor Michael, presided over by Patriarch Photius of Constantinople, and attended by 500 fathers from East and West (the Westerners were the Archbishops of Treves, Cologne and Ravenna). The Council condemns and deposes Pope Nicholas of Rome on the charges of introducing the heretical filioque clause in the creed, as used by the Pope's missionaries in Bulgaria, and for exercising beyond his authority by interfering in dioceses outside his jurisdiction. Pope Nicholas does not accept his deposition, but dies shortly after his condemnation.

867 AD

—Basil the Macedonian usurps the throne after murdering Roman Emperor Michael. Patriarch Photius condemns the murder, refusing Emperor Basil communion. Basil thus deposes Patriarch Photius and replaces him with his predecessor, Ignatius.

868 AD

—Council of Rome, presided over by Pope Hadrian II, condemns Patriarch Photius.


—Council of Constantinople (false council, later repudiated), presided over by Pope Hadrian's legates, attended at first by only 12 bishops, condemns Patriarch Photius.

877 AD

—Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople reposes and Photius is again elected Patriarch.


Council of Constantinople (Eighth Ecumenical), convened by Roman Emperor Basil II, presided over by Patriarch Photius, and attended by 383 bishops of both east and west. It declares the Council of Nicea in 787 to truly be the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and anathematizes those who refuse to recognize it (particularly those in France). It also annuls the Councils of Rome and Constantinople which had condemned Patriarch Photius. In addition, it declares that the Creed, the Symbol of the Faith, must remain exactly as it was handed down by the Holy Fathers. Anyone who dares to make any additions or subtractions (especially in regards to the filioque clause) is anathematized. Finally, it is decreed that the Churches of East and West are not to interfere in one another's jurisdiction, that the west is to depose western bishops and the east is to depose eastern bishops, and that these depositions must be recognized by all of the Churches. This council is also accepted and fully embraced by Pope John VIII of Rome.

898 AD

—Council of Constantinople, presided over by Patriarch Anthony, and attended by local eastern bishops. The supporters of Patriarch Ignatius are reconciled with the Church.

907 AD

—Roman Emperor Leo VI desires to marry a fourth time since his three deceased wives failed to bear him a male successor. The ecclesiastics then divide into two camps over whether he should be allowed a fourth marriage. The moderates are led by Patriarch Nicholas Mysticus, whereas the extremists are led by a rival patriarch called Euthymius.


—Council of Constantinople (Tetragamy Synod), presided over by Patriarch Theophylact, declares fourth marriages to no longer be acceptable, heels the schism of 907 and the reposed rival patriarchs Nicholas and Euthymius are both glorified as saints.

925 AD

—After conquering Macedonia and Thrace, the Bulgar Khan Symeon declares himself "Emperor of the Bulgars and Romans." This title is later recognized by the Pope of Rome.

941 AD

—Russian Prince Igor leads attack on Constantinople. However, the Romans succeed in defending the Imperial City.


—St. Athanasius founds Great Lavra, forming the first monastic community of Mt. Athos.

988 AD

Prince Vladimir of Kiev converts and Russia becomes an Orthodox Christian state.

996 AD

—After the repose of Pope John XV, the Frankish King Otto III installs his relative, Bruno, as the first German (non-Roman) Pope, who takes the name Gregory V. At this point, the once Roman papacy converts to a Frankish organization and becomes a simple pawn of the autocracy. Due to the Frankish control of the papacy, the rulings of the Eighth Ecumenical Council of 879 (of which Pope John VIII had participated) are uncanonically rejected. This allows the filioque to be introduced into the Church of Rome, as well as the papal claims of world domination (heretical views condemned by the Eighth Ecumenical Council). The new Frankish papacy also begins to reject the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" for the Archbishop of Constantinople (New Rome), an historic title bestowed upon the latter as early as 7th century. A Roman Orthodox party in the West rejects the new Frankish Germanic pope and elects a truly Roman and Orthodox Pope, John XVI.


—After being blinded and imprisoned for several years by the Frankish Antipope Gregory V, the last truly Roman and Orthodox Pope, John XVI of Rome, reposes in the Lord.

1024 AD

—Ecumenical Patriarch Eustachius of Constantinople (New Rome) and the three other Eastern Patriarchs refuse to insert the Frankish antipope's name in the diptychs, on the grounds that the papacy of Old Rome has become plagued by corruption (simony) and heresy (filioque and papal supremacy), as well as the refusal to recognize the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" for the Archbishop of Constantinople, according to the ancient tradition. It was at this point that communion was severed with the Frankish Papacy.

1032-48 AD

—The barbarian Count Alberich III of Tusculum seizes authority in Rome and purchases the papal see (simony). Alberich crowns his 12 year old son as Pope Benedict IX. This event replaces the once Roman patriarchate with a powerless papacy that was nothing but a Frankish facade. The barbarian pope Benedict IX is a common criminal, and even the staunchest of Frankish apologists to not deny Benedict's acts of theft, murder and carnal immorality. Scandals break out continuously throughout his reign causing his dethronement. He later ascends the papal throne again, but, wanting to marry, abdicates and sells his throne to his godfather. Benedict later ascends for a third time until he is finally deposed in 1048. Thereafter, only such barbarians occupy the papal throne.


—Council of Vercelli, convened by King Henry I and presided over by Pope Leo III, condemns Berengar of Tours (who believed that Christ is only spiritually present in the Sacred Gifts, rather than physically present in the form of his divine body and blood).

1052 AD

—The Archbishop of Canterbury flees from England due to political reasons. King Edward the Confessor and a council of British bishops elects and installs Bishop Stigand of Winchester as archbishop. The Pope of Rome refuses to recognize the new Archbishop of Canterbury and declares the British Church to supposedly be schismatic.

1052 AD

—The Frankish Norman rulers demand the Roman Orthodox Christians in Southern Italy and Sicily to abandon the eastern rite and adopt Frankish liturgical practices (the heretical filioque and the use of azymes — unleavened bread). This is an attempt to estrange the Romans of Italy with their compatriots in the free Eastern Roman Empire, in order to assimilate them with their barbaric Frankish rulers. In response, the Ecumenical Patriarch Michael Cerularius demands the Latin churches in Constantinople to abandon the Latin rite and adopt the Eastern liturgical practices. This causes the schism to widen.

1053 AD

—Ecumenical Patriarch Michael Cerularius writes to Pope Leo IX offering to restore his name to the diptychs of the Eastern Church if a council is convened to heal the schism.

1054 AD

—Pope Leo IX sends three legates to Constantinople, the chief of which is Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida. Before a council is convened, the latter marches into the Church of Hagia Sophia and places a papal bull of excommunication upon the altar, in which, without a trial, he uncanonically excommunicates Patriarch Michael because the latter supposedly "omitted" [sic] the filioque from the creed and does not accept the use of azymes in holy communion. Patriarch Michael responds by calling a Council of Eastern bishops at which Cardinal Humbert is anathematized, and the use of the filioque clause in the Nicene Creed and azymes in holy communion are condemned. Many scholars mark this event as the "Great Schism" between the Roman Orthodox Church and the Frankish Papacy. However, the schism had already occurred in 1024. The events of 1054 only mark the failed attempt to restore communion and heal the already-existing schism.

1066 AD

—Pope Alexander II of Rome blesses the Frankish King William of Normandy to invaded Britain and submit the Orthodox population to the Frankish Papacy. Thus, William the Conqueror and his Norman forces defeat the British natives at the Battle of Hastings.

1067 AD

—William the Conqueror is uncanonically crowned King of England by Pope Alexander II.


—Council of Winchester, false council, convened by William the Conqueror and presided over by Papal legates, uncanonically deposes the Orthodox Archbishop Stigand of Canterbury, replacing him with the barbaric Norman Bishop Lanfranc.

1072 AD

—The last English Orthodox Bishop, Ethelric of Durham, anathematizes the Frankish Pope and Norman usurpers and dies a Confessor in the prisons of Westminster.

1082 AD

Council of Constantinople, convened by Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and attended by several Eastern hierarchs. It condemns the heresies of John the Italian (who believes in Hellenic philosophy and ancient Greek doctrines of the soul, heaven, earth and creation; that creation is eternal or immutable; that creation is not the result of God's free will; that the world was not created ex nihilo - from nothing; that all of creation without exception will be restored; that heaven and hell are only temporary; that each individual soul exists prior to the conception of its body; that the soul is destroyed after bodily death; that Greek philosophy is capable of explaining exactly how the Logos united Himself to His human substance; and, who refuses to accept the miracles of Christ, the Theotokos and the Saints). The council also sends an epistle to the Frankish Pope Gregory VII, calling for a solution to the schism between east and west in order to form a military alliance against the Seljuk threat. Pope Gregory VII responds positively, provided that his name is restored in the diptychs of Constantinople and a council for union is convened.

1088-89 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened by Roman Emperor Alexius I, adds the name of Frankish Pope Urban II to the diptychs of Constantinople, regardless of Filioque and Azymes, in order to form a military alliance with the Franks against the Seljuks.

1092 AD

—Council of Clermont, convened by the Frankish Pope Urban II, calls the First Crusade.

1095 AD

—Council of Piacenza, presided over by Pope Urban II and attended by representatives of Roman Emperor Alexius I, forms military and religious alliance against Muslim Seljuks.

1097 AD

—Crusaders defeat the Seljuks and capture Nicea and surrounding areas.

1098 AD

—Crusaders capture Antioch, Edessa and Jerusalem from the Muslim Seljuks. Roman Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem are exiled and replaced with Frankish Latin Patriarchs. All Christians of Jerusalem unite under Latin Patriarch and form one communion. However, at Pascha, only the Roman Orthodox lamps are lit by the Holy Light, whereas the Latins receive it second, from the hands of the Roman Orthodox. In Antioch, however, the Roman Orthodox do not accept the Frankish Patriarch. Thus they are divided, some under the Roman Orthodox Patriarch, others under the Latin.

1099 AD

—Council of Bari, convened and presided over by Pope Urban II, and attended by Frankish Latin bishops, as well as by Greek-speaking Roman Orthodox bishops of Southern Italy, numbering 185 in total. The Roman Orthodox bishops present are forced to accept the addition of the filioque in the creed and unite with the Frankish Papacy.


—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Callistus II, and attended by 300 western bishops and abbots, condemns simony and carries out various reforms.


—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Innocent II, and attended by 500 western bishops, condemns simony and the followers of Arnold of Brescia, who refuse to accept the mysteries of the eucharist, priesthood, matrimony and infant baptism.


—Second Crusade, called by Pope Eugenius III and led by Kings Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, in order to recapture Edessa which had been invaded by Muslims. Passing through Constantinople, the crusaders lay siege on Damascus, but fail to capture the city. However, they manage to seize Lisbon in Iberia from Muslim rule.

1157 AD

—Council of Blachernae, convened and presided over by Patriarch Luke Chrysoberges of Constantinople, condemns Baselakes and Soterichus, those who believe that Christ offered His sacrifice on the cross to His Father alone, and not to Himself and the Holy Spirit; that the sacrifice of the Divine Liturgy is only figuratively the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ; that the sacrifice of the Eucharist is not one and the same with that of Christ on the cross; that men are reconciled with the Son through the incarnation and with the Father through the passion; that the deification of Christ's humanity destroyed His human nature; that His deified human nature is not worthy of worship; that Christ's humanity was swallowed up by His divinity and therefore His passion was a mere illusion; that Christ's human characteristics, such as His creaturehood, circumscription, mortality and blameless passions, are only hypothetical, since His humanity is considered in abstraction and not really and truly; and other heretical doctrines.

1166 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Luke Chrysoberges, condemns Constantine the Bulgarian, who believes that the phrase "My Father is greater than I" refers only to Christ's human nature taken in abstraction, and that Christ's human nature retained its properties in the hypostatic union.

1179 AD

—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Alexander III, and attended by 300 western bishops, some eastern Latin bishops and one eastern Greek bishop, firstly in order to heal the schism formed 20 years earlier by the election of antipope Hadrian IV by the Frankish Emperor Frederick I, and secondly to condemn the Albigenses and Waldenses (Neo-Gnostic sects based on Manichaean principles).

1189-92 AD

—Third crusade, called by Latin pope and led by Frankish nobles, against Muslims.

1202-04 AD

—Fourth crusade, never reaches Middle East, but rather invades Roman territory.

1204 AD

Frankish Crusaders sack Constantinople and set up a Latin Kingdom in its place, destroying and pillaging the city's great riches. This causes contempt between Greeks and Latins, thereby widening the schism between the Papist west and Orthodox east.


—The Serbians declare themselves ecclesiastically independent of the archdiocese of Achris (Ochrid). In 1219, the Ecumenical Patriarchate recognizes the independence of the Serbs and consecrates St. Sabbas as Archbishop of Pec. The latter returns to Serbia and consecrates nine new bishops, thereby establishing the Serbian Orthodox Church.

1211 AD

—Council of Turnovo, convened by Boril, Emperor of the Vlachs and Bulgarians, presided over by Patriarch Basil of Ochrid, and attended by several bishops, condemns the heresy of the Bogomils (Cathars or Puritans), who hold a form of Gnosticism or Manichaeanism.

1215 AD

—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Innocent III, and attended by 404 western bishops, one eastern bishop (the Patriarch of the Maronites), the delegates of the Roman Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, and several delegates of the eastern Latin Patriarchs, condemns the teachings of Abbot Joachim of Fiore, and accepts those of Peter the Lombard, who believes the persons of the Holy Trinity are united into a single person wherein there is neither begetting nor proceeding, thus heretically adding a fourth person to the Trinity. This council also declares it improper that the Greeks (Romans) rebaptize those who had been baptized by Latins (Franks), as practiced in the east.

1217-29 AD

—Fifth crusade called by Franco-Latin pope and led by Frederick II against Muslims.

1232 AD

—Council of Nicea-Nymphaeum, convened by Roman Emperor John Vatatzes, presided over by Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople, and attended by Orthodox and Papist theologians, discussed the issue of the filioque clause in order to solve the schism.

1245 AD

—Council of Lyons, convened and presided over by Pope Innocent IV, and attended by 150 western bishops as well as three eastern Latin patriarchs, in order to discuss the problems surrounding the Muslim threat on the Holy Land and the sufferings of the Eastern Empire; to form a defense against the Tartars and other persecutors of the Christians; and to determine the position of the Church in regards to the State.

1248-54 AD

—Sixth crusade called by pope and led by Louis IX of France.


—Council of Nicea, convened by Roman Emperor Theodore Lascaris, and attended by eastern and western theologians in order to bring an end to the papist schism.

1261 AD

Roman Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptures Constantinople from Latin rule.

1266 AD

—Ecumenical Patriarch Arsenius Autoreianus is deposed for not absolving the sins of Roman Emperor John Lascaris, but several clergy and monks do not recognize this deposition and continue to commemorate Arsenius. Another patriarch, Gregory of Adranople, is elected, and the monk Joseph absolves the emperor's sins. This forms a division between "Arsenites" and "Josephites" which is to last 46 years.


—Seventh crusade called by pope, led by Louis IX of France, goes no further than Tunisia.

1274 AD

—Council of Lyons, convened and presided over by Pope Gregory X, and attended by 300 western bishops as well as the legates of Ecumenical Patriarch John Beccus, in order to heal the schism between the Papist west and the Orthodox east. Emperor Michael VIII forces the Orthodox delegation to give in to the papal claims and filioque clause in order to form a swift union enabling the unified Christian world to defeat the Muslim threat.

1285 AD

—Council of Blachernae, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory II the Cypriot, condemns the actions of the eastern delegation at the false council of Lyons. It also condemns the Franko-Latins who use of the filioque clause in terms of interpreting the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit as from both the Father and the Son, rather than eternally from the Father alone and through the Son only in a temporal sense.

1302 AD

—The Frankish Pope Boniface VIII issues a papal bull called the Unam Sanctam, in which it is decreed that two powers rule the Church, one is the spiritual power led by the pope himself, the other is the temporal power of the secular rulers. The bull also declares that all human beings ought to be subject to the Frankish pope in order to attain salvation.

1309 AD

—Due to political situation in Italy, the papacy moves from Rome to Avignon in France.

1311 AD

—Council of Ravenna, convened by Pope Clement V, and attended by several Western bishops, against the ancient tradition, declares baptism by immersion to no longer be necessary, and legalizes baptism by affusion (pouring) or aspersion (sprinkling).

1311-13 AD

—Council of Vienne, convened and presided over by Pope Clement V, and attended by 120 western bishops and 4 eastern Latin patriarchs, in order to assess the crisis in the Holy Land, to judge the Templars of Jerusalem, and to carry out various church reforms. This council also condemns the Beghards and Beguines who believe that a person in this present life can acquire a degree of perfection which renders him utterly impeccable and unable to make further progress in grace; that it is not necessary to fast or pray after gaining this degree of perfection; that those who have reached the said degree of perfection and spirit of liberty, are not subject to human obedience nor obliged to any commandments of the church; that a person can gain in this life final beatitude in every degree of perfection that he will obtain in the life of the blessed; that any intellectual nature in itself is naturally blessed, and that the soul does not need the light of glory (theosis) to elevate it to see God and enjoy him blissfully; that the practice of the virtues belongs to the state of imperfection and the perfect soul is free from virtues; and that the rational or intellectual soul is not essentially and of itself the form of the human body.

1312 AD

—Arsenite schism of Constantinople is brought to an end by the reconciliation of the Arsenites to the Josephites. The reposed Patriarch Arsenius is glorified as a saint. Later, five Arsenite biships again sever communion with the Patriarch and die in schism. But one of these schismatic bishops, Theoleptus of Philadelphia, is later glorified as a saint.

1341 AD

Council of Haghia Sophia (Ninth Ecumenical) convened by Roman Emperor Andronicus III, presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch John Calecas, and attended by the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, and several bishops and abbots, including St. Gregory Palamas. This council condemns Barlaam of Calabria, who believes the light of Mt. Tabor is created, and who criticizes the mystical Jesus Prayer as a supposed practice of the Bogomils, and charges it for not proclaiming Christ as God. Emperor Andronicus dies after the council's first session, and the second session is convened by de facto Roman Emperor John VI Cantacuzene, and presided over by Patriarch John Calecas. This council condemns Acindynus, who takes the opposite extreme to Barlaam of Calabria, believing that the light of Mt. Tabor is the divine essence itself, rather than God's uncreated grace and energy, distinct from His divine essence.

1345 AD

—King Stephan Urosh VI Dushan of Serbia elevates the archbishop of Pec to the status of patriarch, and is then crowned by him as "Emperor of the Serbs and the Romans."

1346 AD

—Council of Adrianople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Lazarus of Jerusalem, and attended by several Thracian bishops, deposes Ecumenical Patriarch John Calecas for supporting and ordaining the condemned heretic, Acindynus.

1347 AD

Council of Constantinople (Palamite), convened by Roman Empress Anne of Savoy and her infant son Emperor John V, deposes Calecas and confirms the Tome of 1341.

1351 AD

Council of Blachernae (Palamite), convened by Roman Emperor John VI Cantacuzene, presided over by Patriarch Callistus of Constantinople, and attended by several bishops, the most prominent of which was St. Gregory Palamas, Archbishop of Thessalonica. This council condemns the Anti-Palamites, and brings a final end to the Acindynite heresy.

1378 AD

—The Frankish Pope Gregory XI returns the papacy from Avignon back to Rome and dies shortly thereafter. The residents of Rome cause riots and havoc demanding the election of a Roman pope, as opposed to a Frankish one. Fearing their safety, the cardinals elect an Italian, Bartholomew of Bari, who takes the name Urban VI. However, due to Urban's ill treatment of his cardinals, 13 of them declare his election flawed due to the riots preceding it, and elect a new, Frankish pope, Clement VII, who eventually resides in Avignon. Henceforth there are two popes, two papacies, two papal lineages, two sets of cardinals and two hierarchies: those of Rome and of Avignon. This event is referred to by historians as either the "Great Schism," the "Western Schism" or the "Avignon Schism."

1409 AD

—Council of Pisa, convened and presided over by Cardinal de Malesset, bishop of Palestrina, and attended by 4 Latin patriarchs, 22 cardinals, 80 bishops and hundreds of lower clergy, condemn and depose the two rival popes, Gregory XII of Rome and Benedict XIII of Avignon, and declare both to be schismatics. This council then ordains a new pope, Alexander V. However, the two other popes do not recognize their deposition, and henceforth there are three popes, three papacies, three papal lineages, three sets of cardinals and three hierarchies: those of Rome, those of Avignon and those of Pisa.

1414-18 AD

—Council of Constance, convened by the German Emperor-elect Sigismund, presided over by Pope John XXIII, successor to Pope Alexander V of Pisa, and attended by 3 Latin Patriarchs, 29 Cardinals, and 150 bishops representing all three popes, in order to bring an end to the "Western Schism." This council declares itself, and all general councils, superior in authority to the pope and forces all three popes to resign. Pope Gregory XII of Rome soon abdicates; Pope John XXIII of Pisa departs the council, which in turn deposes him, but he later resigns and his deposition is lifted; Pope Benedict XIII of Avignon, on the other hand, refuses to abdicate, and even after his condemnation and deposition, continues to serve in Spain as an antipope. The council elects Martin V as the new pope, who is to reside in Rome. The final sessions of the Council of Constance are attended by the Roman Emperor Michael Palaeologus, along with 19 Eastern Orthodox bishops. In addition to resolving the "Western Schism," this council also condemns the heretical teachings of the protestant reformers, John Wycliff of England and John Hus of Bohemia.

1431-49 AD

—Council of Basel, convened by Pope Martin V, presided over by his legate, Cardinal Julian Caesarini, and attended by several cardinals and bishops. It confirms the decisions of the Council of Constance in that general councils are to be convened as often as possible, that these councils are the highest authority in the Church, even higher than the pope, and that the pope does not have the power to prematurely dissolve the council or make any such decisions without the majority vote of the council members. Pope Martin dies shortly after the council begins, and Eugene IV is promptly elected. The council sessions continue under the presidency of Cardinal Julian, until Pope Eugene dissolves the Council of Basel in 1437 in favor of holding a council in Ferrara. However, the majority of bishops attending the Council of Basel, not accepting the pope's authority in making this single-handed decision, refuse to dissolve and demand the pope to appear before them on the charge of disobedience. After warning the pope several times but to no avail, they condemn him of schism and heresy, depose him, and elect a new pope, Felix V, in his stead. Pope Eugene does not recognize his deposition by the Council of Basel, nor the election of the antipope Felix, but convenes a new council in Ferrara.

1438-39 AD

—Council of Ferrara, convened and presided over by Pope Eugene IV, and attended by several cardinals and bishops. It declares the Council of Basel to be officially dissolved, condemns the bishops who remained thereat of schism and heresy, and nullifies their council decisions from the time of the dissolution onwards. The purpose of the Council of Ferrara is to unite with the Eastern Churches and thereby strengthen the Christian front against Islam. The Roman Emperor John Palaeologus eventually arrives at the council, followed by Ecumenical Patriarch Joasaph of Constantinople and representatives of the Roman Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, numbering about 700 in total. The question of the filioque clause and the use of azymes is not discussed, but rather only the issue in regards to purgatory. After countless debates, neither side could be persuaded to accept the other's position. With the permission of the Easterners, Pope Eugene dissolves the Council of Ferrara and a new council is convened at Florence, at which the religious debates between Easterners and Westerners continues.

1439-42 AD

—Council of Florence, convened by Roman Emperor John Palaeologus, presided over by Pope Eugene IV, and attended by Ecumenical Patriarch Joasaph and several bishops representing both Eastern and Western Churches. The question of the filioque clause is discussed and debated but to no avail, for neither side would concede to the other’s position. However, Ecumenical Patriarch Joachim suddenly dies, and the Westerners produce a document claiming that the late patriarch had conceded to all the western doctrines and had signed a declaration of union before his death. The Easterners follow suit and sign the declaration of union, all except St. Mark Eugenicus, Archbishop of Ephesus, who refuses any form of compromise in matters of the faith. Of those who do sign, all clearly state that it is merely their personal opinion and that no true union can be accomplished unless the Roman Orthodox Church convenes a general council in the East and unanimously accepts the decisions of the Council of Florence. This, however, does not occur, for the great majority of Orthodox clergy and laity staunchly protest against the union. Upon returning to the East, most of the bishops who had signed the union withdraw their signatures and again confess their fidelity to the Orthodox Faith. In the meantime, back at Florence, a union is formed between the Westerners and the Armenian Monophysites, after the latter accept the definition of the Council of Chalcedon. Later a union is formed with the Jacobite Syrian Monophysites along similar guidelines. After this, a union is formed with the Coptic Monophysites of Egypt, again along the same guidelines as the other Monophysites, with the sole addition that the Copts are required to discontinue neonatal circumcision, which had been a prominent tradition among them, despite the decision of the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem. The Armenians, Syrians and Copts reject the union years later and return to their previous Monophysite tendencies.

1443-45 AD

—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Eugene IV, and attended by several cardinals and bishops, forms a union with the Nestorian Chaldeans of Cyprus, as well as those of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, who are required to renounce the teachings of Nestorius and accept the Council of Ephesus and all subsequent ecumenical councils. A union is also formed with the Maronite Syrians of Cyprus, who are required to renounce the Monothelite teachings of Macarius of Antioch.

1448 AD

—Council of Kiev deposes Metropolitan Isidore who had participated in the false Council of Florence, and elects Metropolitan Jonah, declaring autonomy for the Russian Church.

1453 AD

—Turks led by Mehmet II capture Constantinople (New Rome), the Great Imperial City.

1458 AD

—Frankish Pope Eugene IV of Rome sends a Latin Metropolitan of Kiev to replace the exiled Isidore. Thus the south-western Russians are in submission to the Pope and opposed to the Orthodox rival church under Metropolitan Jonah of Moscow and all Russia.

1461 AD

—Turks capture Trebizond, the last major Roman city, thus ending the Roman Empire.


—The Latin Metropolitan of Kiev and his Ruthenian subjects sever communion with the Pope of Rome and enter under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

1472 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Dionysius I and attended by several bishops representing the Orthodox patriarchates, condemns the decisions of the false council of Florence, declares the filioque clause and western doctrine of purgatory to be heretical, and sets requirements for Latin converts.

1472 AD

—Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III the Great marries Sophia, the niece of the last Roman Emperor Constantine XI Dragases Palaeologus, and assumes the titles of Autocrat, Roman Emperor and Caesar (Czar). He also adopts the Roman Imperial emblem, the double-headed eagle, to symbolize the power of his newly established Russian Empire.

1484 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened by Ecumenical Patriarch Symeon I, and attended by several bishops, declares Latin converts to be received by the rite of chrismation.


1492 AD

—Seventh age ends, eighth and last age begins.

1512-17 AD

—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Julius II and attended by several cardinals and bishops, repudiates the Council of Pisa and annuls the French "Pragmatic Sanction." Pope Julius dies and Leo X is elected. The latter presides over the Council, which formulates several canons and anathematizes the philosopher Peter Pomponazzi, who had taught heretical Aristotelian doctrines in regards to the soul.

1517 AD

—Martin Luther nails his 95 theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg. Protestant Reformation begins in Germany with Lutheran schism (Lutheranism).

1534 AD

—King Henry VIII creates the independent Church of England, after separating from the Pope of Rome, due to the fact that the latter would not grant him permission to divorce his wife and remarry. The Church of England later reforms and becomes a protestant sect.

1541 AD

—Calvin leads Protestant Reformation in Geneva forming Calvinist schism (Calvinism).

1545-62 AD

—Council of Trent, convened and presided over by Pope Paul III and attended by several bishops, condemns Lutheranism, Calvinism and other heretical forms of Protestantism.

1551 AD

—Council of Moscow ( "Stoglav Synod" or "Council of the 100 Chapters"), convened by Russian Emperor Ivan IV the Terrible, presided over by Metropolitan Macarius of Moscow, and attended by several bishops of the Russian Church, formulates canons in regards to church discipline and liturgy, and glorifies (canonizes) numerous Russian saints.


—John Knox leads Protestant Reformation in Scotland and forms Presbyterian Church.

1569 AD

—Frankish Pope Pius V orders his subjects to no longer make the sign of the cross with three fingers and from the right shoulder to the left (as was the ancient tradition), but rather with the entire extended hand and from the left shoulder to the right, in order to be different from the Easterners. The signing of the cross with three fingers is preserved only for the Pope, for bishops, and for the Carthusian and Dominican monastic orders.

1582 AD

—Robert Browne leads Reformation in Holland and forms Congregationalist Church.

1582 AD

—Frankish Pope Gregory XIII, with the help of pagan astronomers, formulates the new, papal, Gregorian Calendar, and demands its acceptance throughout the world.

1582 AD

—King Sigismund III of Poland, a Franco-Latin, adopts the Gregorian Calendar within the realms of his kingdom. Thus the Ruthenian Orthodox Church, centered at Kiev and under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, inquires whether it should also adopt the Gregorian calendar, but Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II calls a council and addresses a Patriarchal Sigilium (Bull) to the people of Trigovisty, under Polish rule, and to the entire Orthodox world in general, warning them not to adopt the new, papal, Gregorian calendar.

1583 AD

Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, called the Illustrious, of Constantinople, and attended by Patriarchs Sylvester of Alexandria and Sophronius of Jerusalem and several other bishops, condemns those who uncanonically and heretically insert the filioque clause in the Nicene creed, thereby believing that the Holy Spirit proceeds essentially and hypostatically from both the Father and the Son, rather than essentially from the Father alone, and from the Father and Son together only in a temporal sense; those who do not administer both the body and blood in the Eucharist, bur rather only the body, claiming that it is sufficient, although Christ administered both kinds; those who administer the body in the form of unleavened bread, contrary to the gospels and ancient tradition; those who perform the mystery of holy baptism by sprinkling, rather than by triple immersion; those who believe that at the Second Coming the Lord will judge only bodies and not also souls, or embodied souls; that Christians who had failed to repent on earth go to a mythical purgatory where they are cleansed by fire before entering paradise, or that hell is not everlasting but only temporary, as in the teachings of Origen; that the Pope of Rome, rather than the Lord Jesus Christ, is the head of the Church, and supposedly has certain rights to admit people into paradise by way of indulgences, passports or licenses to sin; and those who trample upon the decrees of the First Ecumenical Council of Nicea by adopting the unorthodox Gregorian Paschalion and Menologion (i.e. the new calendar).

1587 AD

Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II and attended by Patriarchs Sylvester of Alexandria, Joachim V of Antioch, Sophronius of Jerusalem and several bishops, condemns any attempt to adopt the new, papal, Gregorian calendar or to revise the Julian calendar.

1589 AD

—Council of Moscow, convened by Russian Emperor Theodore I, presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by several Greek and Russian bishops, raises Metropolitan Job of Moscow to the rank of Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, thereby restoring the ancient pentarchy, Moscow having replaced the fallen Old Rome.

1589 AD

—Council of Vilna, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by several bishops, formulates regulations for the administration of the Ruthenian Church and elects Metropolitan Michael Rahoza of Kiev as exarch and primate.

1593 AD

Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened by Russian Emperor Theodore I, presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by Patriarchs Meletius Pegas of Alexandria, Joachim VI of Antioch, Sophronius of Jerusalem, Job of Moscow and several bishops, condemns the use of the new, Gregorian calendar.

1594 AD

—Council of Brest-Litovsk, convened by King Sigismund III of Poland, presided over by Metropolitan Michael of Kiev, and attended by the Ruthenian bishops, severs communion with Ecumenical Patriarchate and petitions for union with Franco-Latin Pope Clement VIII.

1595 AD

—Council of Rome, convened and presided over by Franco-Latin Pope Clement VIII, and attended by several cardinals and bishops, receives the Ruthenians into communion, allowing them to recite the creed without the filioque clause and to retain the Eastern rite. This event forms the "Greek Catholic," "Byzantine Catholic" or "Uniate Catholic" Church.

1596 AD

—Council of Brest-Litovsk, convened by Prince Constantine of Ostrog, presided over by Bishop Gideon Balaban of Lemburg, and attended by Bishop Michael Kopystenski of Przemysl, Archimandrite Nicephorus (representing the Ecumenical Patriarch), Cyril Lucaris (representing the Patriarch of Alexandria) and several fathers, condemn the union of the Ruthenians with the Pope, declare the maintenance of the Old Calendar, and petition the Ecumenical Patriarchate to depose the Uniate metropolitan and bishops.

1605 AD

—John Smyth leads Protestant Reformation in Amsterdam and forms Baptist Church.


—Council of Moscow, convened by Russian Emperor Michael, presided over by Patriarch Philaret, and attended by several bishops, declare Latin converts to be received by the rite of baptism, due to the fact that Latins baptize by aspersion rather than triple immersion.

1628 AD

—Council of Kiev, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Job of Kiev, and attended by bishops from throughout western Russia (at that time under Polish rule), condemn the union of Brest-Litovsk, depose and excommunicate the apostate Uniates, and declare their fidelity to the Orthodox Christian faith and loyalty to the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

1628 AD

—Michael Jones leads Reformation in Holland and forms Dutch Reformed Church.

1638 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by several bishops, condemns the heretical Calvinism of Patriarch Cyril Lucaris.

1642 AD

—Council of Jassy, convened by the Duke of Moldavia, presided over by Metropolitan Peter Moghila of Kiev, and attended by several bishops representing all five Orthodox patriarchates, condemns the Latin and Calvinist heresies and especially the Uniates who had been converted by Latin and Calvinist missionaries, confirms various so-called Apocryphal books as being genuine parts of scripture, and corrects the Latin errors of the Confession of Peter Moghila, thereby permitting it to be used for Orthodox catechism.

1666-67 AD

Council of Moscow (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened by Russian Emperor Alexis, presided over by Patriarch Païsius of Alexandria, and attended by Patriarchs Macarius of Antioch and Joasaph of Moscow, Metropolitans Athanasius of Iconium (representing the Ecumenical Patriarch), Ananias of Sinai (representing the Patriarch of Jerusalem), and several bishops and fathers, condemn the Old Ritualists (who refused to comply with corrections made in order to comply with the Church's liturgical unity, such as celebrating feastdays on the same day as the rest of the Orthodox Churches, making the sign of the cross with three fingers instead of two, not kneeling on Sundays, etc); allows heretics and schismatics to be received into the Orthodox Church by the rite of chrismation, as an act of economy (dispensation), instead of baptism; and forbids the iconographic depiction of the Holy Trinity with God the Father as an old man and the Holy Spirit as a dove, due to the fact that it transgresses the rules of Orthodox iconography as expressed by the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and because the form of this image is of unorthodox Western origin.


—Council of Jerusalem, convened and presided over by Patriarch Dositheus, condemns al the Franco-Latin heresies, including the new, papal, Gregorian calendar.

1672 AD

—Council of Jerusalem (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Patriarch Dositheus, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Patriarch Cyril Lucaris for his heretical Calvinist theories (that salvation is by grace alone and therefore God supposedly predestined the salvation or damnation of each individual without taking any of their deeds into account, making man's free will irrelevant to salvation; prating that God wills the damnation of souls for no fault of their own; and that holy communion is not truly the Lord's holy body and precious blood, but rather only symbolic of the Lord's suffering). The acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates, including that of Russia, thereby making its decisions equivalent to that of a Pan-Orthodox Council.

1701 AD

—Metropolitan Athanasius of Transylvania (under Hungarian rule) accepts union with the Franco-Latins, thereby forming the Uniate Greek-Catholic Church in Romania.

1724 AD

—Due to Franco-Latin missionaries in Syria, the Roman Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch becomes tainted with pro-uniate, Latin-minded clergy. After the repose of the Roman Orthodox Patriarch Athanasius III Debbas of Antioch and all the East, the pro-Latin party headquartered in Damascus uncanonically elects Cyril VI as new patriarch. A week later, the Roman Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch elects Sylvester the Cypriot as rightful successor to the throne. The other Roman Orthodox patriarchates recognize the election of Sylvester, whereas Cyril and his party are condemned as schismatics. Having fallen into schism from the Roman Orthodox Church, the schismatics unite with the Frankish papacy and form what came to be known as the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.

1754 AD

—The kyriakon of St. Anne's Skete on Mt. Athos is built and Orthodox faithful throughout the world send the names of their deceased relatives to be commemorated at the full services held in kyriakon. At first, the memorial services are only held on Saturdays, but due to the multitude of names to be commemorated, services begin to be held on other days of the week, including Sundays. This causes controversy as many fathers disagree with the practice of commemorating the dead on Sunday, the day of Resurrection. The fathers who disagree with the practice are scorned and called Kollyvades. Among these fathers, who are later glorified as saints, are Macarius Notaras of Corinth, Athanasius of Paros, Nicodemus of Athos and Arsenius of Paros (the latter had even died in "schism").

1755-56 AD

Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Council), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril V, and attended by Patriarchs Matthew of Alexandria and Parthenius of Jerusalem, and several bishops representing the Orthodox patriarchates (the acts of this council are also later signed by Patriarch Sylvester of Antioch), decree that Western converts must be baptized upon their reception into the Orthodox Church. This council also condemns and anathematizes anyone that dares to change the calendar.

1766 AD

—Council of Cetinje, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Sabbas of Zeta and Cetinje, declares the Archdiocese of Montenegro to be independent. The autocephaly is later recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Churches of Russia and Serbia.

1772 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Theodosius II, and attended by Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem and several bishops, declares the Kollyvades to be correct in serving memorials on Saturdays, but does not judge those who perform them on Sundays or any other day of the week.

1773 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Samuel Hantzeris, declares it proper to serve memorials for the dead on Saturday alone.

1774 AD

—Council of Koutloumousiou in Athos, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril V, and attended by Patriarch Matthew of Alexandria and 10 bishops in total, anathematize whoever does not accept the synodical decisions on the Kollyvades issue.

1776 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Sophronius II, and attended by several bishops, excommunicates the Kollyvades.


—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Sophronius II, and attended by several bishops, condemns the iconographic depiction of the Holy Trinity with God the Father as an old man and the Holy Spirit as a dove, due to its Franco-Latin origins, and because it transgresses the rules of Orthodox iconography.

1815 AD

—Council of Cyprus, convened and presided over by Archbishop Cyprian of New Justiniana, and attended by several bishops, condemns freemasonry.

1819 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch St. Gregory V, endorses the teachings of the Kollyvades (forbidding memorial services for the dead to be held on Sundays, recommending frequent communion, and observing the empirical experience of hesychasm, regardless of metaphysical speculations and rationalism).

1821 AD

The Roman Orthodox Revolution is sparked and spreads throughout the Ottoman Empire, giving hope for the re-establishment of the Roman Orthodox State (Romania).

1827 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Agathangelus I, and attended by several bishops, condemns any attempt to revise the church calendar.

1828 AD

The Roman State is re-established in Peloponnesus under John Cappodistrias, with the provisional capital of Nauplia en Romania (Napoli de Romania, Naples of Romania).

1832 AD

—London Conference declares the newly established Roman State to be known as the "Kingdom of Greece" or Basileia tes Hellados in Greek, for Athens to be its capital, for its people to be called Greeks or Hellenes, and to be ruled by King Otto, a Bavarian royal.

1833 AD

—Council of Nauplia, declares the liberated areas to be ecclesiastically independent of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, and to be governed by a five-member synod of bishops.

1848 AD

Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI, and attended by Patriarchs Hierotheus of Alexandria, Methodius of Antioch, Cyril of Jerusalem and 33 bishops representing the Orthodox patriarchates, condemns all the Franco-Latin heresies that had arisen up until that time.


—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Anthimus VI, and attended by several bishops, recognizes the autocephaly of the Church of Greece.

1865 AD

—The Romanian Church declares itself independent of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.


—Council of Vatican, convened and presided over by Pope Pius IX, and attended by several cardinals and bishops, confirms the false new dogma of the so-called Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and declares the pope, while he speaks ex cathedra in matters of dogma and church order, he is supposedly infallible. Many Franco-Latins disagree with this definition of papal infallibility and form what is later known as the Old Catholic Church, prominent in Germany and neighboring lands.


—Slavic-speaking Orthodox Christians living in the Thracian and Macedonian regions of the Ottoman Empire, who up until this time had referred to themselves as Romans and had belonged to the Rum Milet (Roman sub-nation under Ottoman rule), begin calling themselves Bulgarians as a reaction to the Greek-speaking Orthodox Christians of the same areas who had forsaken their Roman name and identity by adopting the term Hellenes. This ethnic schism between Slavic and Greek speaking Roman Orthodox Christians soon leads to an ecclesiastical schism. The Bulgarians sever communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI of Constantinople (New Rome), and in his place install their own Bulgarian patriarch in Constantinople, as well as their own Bulgarian Metropolitans and Bishops in every major town of Thrace and Macedonia.

1872 AD

Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI, and attended by Patriarchs Sophronius IV of Alexandria and Procopius II of Jerusalem and several bishops, condemn phyletism (ethnocentric belief that Orthodox Christians in a given place and time should be divided into separate exarchates, based on ethnicity), and the Bulgarian schism is condemned. The decisions of this council are later accepted by the other local Orthodox Churches.

1879 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Procopius I of Athens, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Makrakists, who believe in the Protestant delusion that humans supposedly each consist of three natures: a body, soul and spirit; and that the former two are mortal and corruptible whereas the latter is divine, being the Holy Spirit; rather than believing that all men consist of only a single human nature; that this one nature consists of two compartments, to wit, a body and a soul; that man's sprit is simply another term for his soul and these terms are used interchangeably; that the human nature does not consist of anything divine in and of itself; and that the human soul or spirit is not eternal, but is rather created immortal and incorruptible by divine grace.

1879 AD

—Council of Sremsky-Carlovtsy, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Michael and attended by several bishops, declares the Serbian Orthodox Church to be autocephalous.

1885 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Joachim IV, and attended by several bishops, recognizes the autocephalous status of the Romanian Orthodox Church. The autocephaly is later recognized by the other Churches.

1888 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Dionysius V, and attended by several bishops, permits the reception of Western converts to Orthodoxy by the rite of chrismation as an act of economia (dispensation) in extreme circumstances.

1895 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Anthimus VII, and attended by 13 bishops in total, condemns all the Franco-Latin heresies, including the new false dogma of the so-called Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and the blasphemous teaching that the pope is supposedly infallible and undeposable.

1899 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Constantine V, and attended by several bishops, deposes the newly-elected Patriarch Meletius II of Antioch, on the grounds of phyletism, due to the fact that the latter had been elected by an anti-Greek, pro-Arab party within the Antiochene Patriarchate, a similar party to that which caused the Melkite schism of 1724 and subsequent union with the Latins.

1902-04 AD

Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Council), convened and presided over by Patriarch Joachim III, and attended by several bishops, addresses the local Orthodox Churches of Alexandria, Jerusalem, Cyprus, Russia, Greece, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, requesting each to convene a council to decide two issues: firstly, whether steps should be taken for the Orthodox Church to enter into dialogue and subsequent communion with the so-called Old Catholics who had separated from the Pope in 1870 because they refused to accept the decisions of the Vatican Council regarding papal infallibility; and secondly, if an agreement could be reached in regards to whether or not to revise the Julian calendar or accept the Gregorian calendar, as requested by many proponents of revision. The Local Orthodox Churches each convene councils to discuss the issues at hand. These councils are: the Council of Alexandria (1902), presided over by Patriarch Photius; the Council of Jerusalem (1903), presided over by Patriarch Damian; the Council of Moscow (1903), presided over by Metropolitan Vladimir; the Council of Bucharest (1903), presided over by the Metropolitan of Wallachia; the council of Athens (1903) presided over by Metropolitan Theocletus; the council of Karlovtsi (1904), presided over by Metropolitan Innocent; and the Council of Cetinje (1904), presided over by Metropolitan Metrophanes. The Council of Constantinople (1904) is then resumed under the presidency of Patriarch Joachim III, and in accordance with the decisions of the Local Orthodox Churches it is decided that Universal Orthodoxy is in favor of communion with the Old Catholics so as long as the latter condemn all the Franco-Latin heresies and return to the fold of the Orthodox Church; and that Universal Orthodoxy condemns any attempt to revise the Julian calendar or accept the Gregorian, declaring that all Local Orthodox Churches adhere to the patristic Orthodox paschalion and menologion.

1912 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Joachim III, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers), who believed that the name of God is not only holy and filled with the grace of God, but blasphemously prate that God's name is rather holy in and of itself, being God Himself.

1913 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Germanus V, and attended by several bishops, again condemns the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers).

1913 AD

—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Macarius of Moscow, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers).

1914-18 AD

—World War I.

1918 AD

—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Patriarch Tychon of Moscow, and attended by several bishops, condemns and anathematizes Militant Atheism (Marxism, Communism) which had taken control over Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution. This council also confirms the earlier condemnation of the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers).

1919 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by several bishops, again condemns the new calendar.


—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Patriarch Tychon of Moscow and all Russia, and attended by several bishops, ratifies a directive to allow Russian dioceses outside Russia, or out of contact with the Moscow Patriarchate due to the Bolshevik persecutions, to set up self-governing temporary higher church administrations.


—Council of Constantinople (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Dorotheus of Prusa, and attended by several bishops, seeks union with the heterodox Westerners. This remarkable about-face is mostly due to the patriarchate's fear of the spread of Communism throughout the eastern lands, especially after the fall of the Russian and Ottoman empires and the rise of the new Bolshevik and Kemalian nations, the latter of which had begun a campaign of ethnically cleansing Asia Minor of its native Roman Orthodox population and placed the Ecumenical Patriarchate in jeopardy). Fearing the future, the council blasphemously declares union with heterodox possible, regardless of doctrinal differences; proposes the adoption of a new calendar common to all denominations; and calls for the convention of so-called pan-Christian assemblies for theological dialogue leading to the union of all Eastern and Western confessions.

1921 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by several bishops, deposes Metropolitan Meletius Metaxakis of Athens for supporting the revolutionary government, which had caused the Venizelist schism. However, after his deposition by the Church of Greece, Metaxakis manages to usurp the throne of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Upon his installment by the revolutionary government, Metaxakis recognizes the orders of the heretical Anglican Church of England.

1922 AD

—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Patriarch Tychon, and attended by several bishops, condemns and anathematizes the renovationists (a modernist sect that styled itself as the “Living Church” and introduced the new calendar, shortened services, abolished the fasts, and allowed priests to cut their hair, shave and wear secular clothing; the renovationists also had strong ties with the antichristian Bolshevik regime).

1923 AD

—Council of Constantinople (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Meletius IV Metaxakis (a professed 33 degree freemason, who had been deposed by the Church of Greece), and attended by Bishop Gore of Oxford (another freemason, representing the Anglican heretics), Metropolitans Callinicus of Cyzicus and Basil of Nicea (a freemason representing the Church of Cyprus, and who later usurps the Ecumenical throne in 1925), Archbishop Alexander Nomolovsky (a freemason who had already been suspended by the Church of Russia), Metropolitan Gabriel of Montenegro (representing the Church of Serbia), Metropolitan James of Dyrrachium (representing the Church of Greece), Archbishop Anastasius Gribanovsky (representing the Russian Orthodox Church in Exile, who abandons the synod without signing any agreements), and Archimandrite Julius Scriban (representing the Church of Romania). The Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem and Moscow, and the Churches of Georgia and Bulgaria are not represented. This heretical congress proposes: to abandon the historic Orthodox Paschalion and Menologion and adopt the new calendar; to transfer major feastdays to the nearest Sundays in order to lessen the holidays; to allow a married episcopate, for widowed priests to remarry and for unmarried priests to be allowed to marry after their ordination; to shorten the Church services; to abolish the fasts; to allow clergy to cut their hair and shave their beards; and to allow clergy to wear secular clothing in public. The Local Orthodox Churches do not recognize this false council, and a month later riots break out in the streets forcing Patriarch Meletius Metaxakis to resign from office.

1923 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Chrysostom of Athens, and attended by 4 bishops (only 2 of which agree), decides to adopt the new calendar.

1924 AD

—Council of Alexandria, convened and presided over by Patriarch Photius of Alexandria, and attended by several bishops, condemns the decision of the Church of Greece to adopt the new calendar and calls for a Pan-Orthodox Council. Patriarchs Gregory of Antioch and Damian of Jerusalem and Archbishop Cyril of Cyprus reply by also condemning the new calendar and by offering Patriarch Photius their complete support.

1924 AD

—The Ecumenical Patriarchate and the State Church of Greece implement the change of the calendar and demand all Local Orthodox Churches to also implement the change. Patriarch Photius of Alexandria sharply rejects the innovation and declares that his Patriarchate is to remain with the old calendar. His stance is joined shortly thereafter by Patriarch Gregory of Antioch, Patriarch Damian of Jerusalem and Archbishop Cyril of Cyprus. Patriarch Demetrius of Serbia replies that although the Serbian Church was at one stage willing to adopt the new calendar, it has now changed its mind and has decided to remain with the calendar of the Holy Fathers. Patriarch Tychon of Moscow, due to a faulty translation of Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory’s telegraph, thinks that the entire Orthodox world has adopted the new calendar and therefore decides to follow suit. However, upon hearing that the majority of Local Orthodox Churches had rejected the innovation, Patriarch Tychon does not implement the change. Metropolitan Anthony of Kiev, and the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, condemns the introduction of the new calendar. The only Local Orthodox Church that implements the change of the calendar is the Church of Romania under Metropolitan Myron of Wallachia. The latter is therefore rewarded with the title of patriarch due to his blind obedience.

1926 AD

—Although deposed by the Church of Greece and forced to resign from the position of Ecumenical Patriarch, Meletius Metaxakis usurps the Alexandrian throne and implements the calendar change in that patriarchate. The Church of Cyprus follows in 1928.

1927 AD

—Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky, a leading Russian bishop, declares the Church to be completely loyal and subject to the antichristian Soviet government. Several bishops throughout Russia protest against this declaration, and are forced underground, thereby forming the Catacomb Church of Russia. The Russian Church Abroad also protests. Sergius's followers later form the "Moscow Patriarchate," created by Stalin in 1943.

1928 AD

—Council of Syzran-Yeltz-Vyshny-Volochok in Russia (Nomadic Synod), convened and presided over by Bishop Mark Novoselov, and attended at first by 3 other bishops and 3 priests, each representing a different Catacomb Synod (i.e. Danilovites, Josephites, Andrewites, Victorites, Yaroslavlites, Yedinovertsy, etc). This council condemns the renovationists as well as the sergianists as schismatics, declares them bereft of sacramental grace, and requires their chrismation upon reception into the Church.

1928 AD

—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Basil III, and attended by several bishops, transfers the dioceses of Southern Macedonia and Western Thrace to the jurisdiction of the State Church of Greece, and elevates Metropolitan Chrysostom of Athens to the status of Archbishop of Athens and all Greece.

1929 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens, and attended by 44 bishops (most of which had been transferred to this jurisdiction the preceding year), decides to legitimize the adoption of the new calendar. Of the 44 bishops present, 13 depart the council meeting, 27 refuse to endorse the decree, and only 4 sign.

1932 AD

—Council of Sremsky-Carlovtsy, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Anthony of Kiev and attended by several bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, condemns freemasonry and declares unrepentant freemasons to be excommunicated.

1933 AD

—Council of Antioch, convened and presided over by Patriarch Alexander III, and attended by several bishops, declares baptism necessary for the reception of Western converts.

1933 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens, and attended by several bishops, condemns freemasonry and all affiliated organizations.

1935 AD

—Council of Sremsky-Carlovtsy, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Anastasius, and attended by several bishops, condemns the heretical Sophism or Sophiology preached in the Parisian school by Archimandrite Sergius Bulgakov (the belief that Sophia—God’s Wisdom—is a feminine personality, the soul of the world, thereby adding a fourth hypostasis to the Holy Trinity, replacing God the Father with a “mother-goddess” and other false doctrines based on Plato’s pagan philosophy, cabbalistic teachings, and heretical Valentinian Gnosticism, which had been condemned by the early Church). This council declares the Parisians (under the Ecumenical Patriarchate) to be bereft of grace.

1935 AD

—Council of Keratea, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by Metropolitans Chrysostom of Florina, Chrysostom of Zacynth, Germanus of the Cyclades, Christopher of Megaris, Polycarp of Diaulia and Matthew of Bresthena, condemn the introduction of the new calendar, declare the State Church of Greece to be in schism, and formulate regulations for the new seven-member synod. Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias is installed as locum tenens of the Archdiocesan throne, 5 of the remaining bishops are given ruling dioceses, whereas Chrysostom, the former Metropolitan of Florina, is placed in charge of apostolic ministry and foreign affairs, and is sent to the East to garner support from the Patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem.

1935 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by Metropolitans Chrysostom of Florina, Germanus of the Cyclades and Matthew of Bresthena, and several archimandrites and fathers, declares the State Church of Greece to be fully schismatic and bereft of sacramental grace.

1937 AD

—Council of Ust-Kut in Russia, confirms the decisions of the 1928 Nomadic Council.

1938 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of the Cyclades, attended by Metropolitan Matthew of Bresthena, and several archimandrites and fathers, condemns Florinism, as preached by Chrysostom of Florina (the belief that those who fall under anathema and sever themselves from the Church are supposedly only potentially but not actually in schism, and therefore possess sacramental grace; that supposedly only a Pan-Orthodox Council has the power to condemn heresies that have already been condemned by numerous Pan-Orthodox Councils in the past; and that the official church, even if in schism and under anathema, is supposedly the “Mother Church” and “source of grace” simply because it is recognized as such by the state authorities.

1939-45 AD

—World War II.

1945 AD

—The Bulgarian Church restores communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate, adopts the new calendar and the Metropolitan of Sofia is elevated to the rank of Patriarch.

1945 AD

—Council of Athens (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Chrysostom of Florina and attended by 2 bishops, officially endorses the false teachings of Florinism (later known as Cyprianism). This decision is repudiated in 1950.

1948 AD

—Council of Amsterdam (Syncretistic Synod), at which the World Council of Churches (WCC) is established for the purpose of ecumenical dialogue and joint prayer between Orthodox and Protestants. The new calendarist Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Romania and Greece participate, along with countless Protestant sects.

1948 AD

—Council of Moscow (Sergianistic Synod), convened by the antichristian atheist Stalin, presided over by Patriarch Alexius of Moscow, and attended by representatives of the Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Russia, Georgia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Czechoslovakia and Poland, praises Stalin and endorses a pro-communist political stance and ironically condemns ecumenism, purely for political reasons, despite the fact that the Churches represented at this council are ecumenistic, and become even more deeply involved in ecumenism after this council's resolution.

1948 AD

—Council of Chirchik in Russia, convened and presided over by Archbishop Theodore, and attended by 13 bishops representing each of the Catacomb synods, condemns the sergianistic false council of 1948, and declares Metropolitan Anastasius of the Russian Church Abroad to be the true leader of the Russian Orthodox Church.

1949 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Matthew of Athens, and attended by 4 bishops and several archimandrites and fathers, condemns freemasonry.


—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Chrysostom of Florina, and attended by 3 bishops, repudiates Florinism and apologizes for causing a schism. In the next year 1 Florinite bishop dies and the remaining 3 resign from the episcopate. Of those that resign, 2 join the new calendarists, leaving Chrysostom of Florina alone until he dies in 1955, leaving no successors, thus bringing the Florinite hierarchy to an end.

1956 AD

—Council of Slatioara in Moldavia, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Galaction, and attended by 3 bishops and several archimandrites and fathers, condemns the introduction of the new calendar, declares the new calendarists to be schismatic, and formally establishes the Holy Synod of the True Orthodox Church of Romania.

1957 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Demetrius of Thessalonica, and attended by 12 bishops of the True Orthodox Churches of Greece and Cyprus, condemns new calendarism, modernism, ecumenism and syncretism, especially in regards to the involvement of various so-called Orthodox clergy and laymen in the heretical World Council of Churches convention of Amsterdam in 1948.


—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Agathangelus of Athens, and attended by several bishops, deposes the disobedient archimandrites Acacius Pappas (the elder), Acacius Pappas (the younger), Auxentius Pastras and several other monks for canonical infractions. Archbishop Matthew had ordained these archimandrites, but because he refused to consecrate them to the episcopacy, they departed and took the lead of the bishopless Florinite flock. These deposed monks later succeed in obtaining consecrations from a new calendarist Romanian bishop and a Russian bishop acting without the knowledge or permission of his Synod, thereby forming the “Acacian” schism, which eventually splinters into a bewilderment of factions both in Greece and abroad.

1961-63 AD

—Council of Rhodes (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras, and attended by several bishops representing each of the official Local Orthodox Churches, agrees to enter into ecumenical dialogue with the Papists.

1963 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Agathangelus, and attended by several bishops, condemns and anathematizes the heretical Russellites, otherwise known as so-called “witnesses of Jehovah,” who follow Arianism, Chiliasm, Gnosticism and countless other heresies already condemned by the early Church.

1963 AD

—Council of Grayslake in Illinois, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Dionysius Milivojevic, and attended by several fathers, severs communion with Patriarch Germanus of Serbia due to the latter’s involvement with the antichristian communist government of Yugoslavia, thereby forming the Free Serbian Orthodox Church in the Diaspora.

1963-65 AD

—Council of Vatican (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over at first by Pope John XXIII (a Rosicrucian Freemason) and later by Pope Paul VI (another Freemason), and attended by several cardinals and bishops, declares the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Church of England to possess the grace of the priesthood and apostolic succession, and encourages ecumenical dialogue and joint prayers with the Orthodox and Protestants. In addition to this, the false religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Judaism are declared to possess some form of truth, and Catholics are called upon to acquire a better understanding of these non-Christian confessions. At the end of the council, Pope Paul VI takes off his papal miter (traditionally worn by the Roman popes as a sign of authority) and places it upon the altar. From that day forward, the Roman popes no longer wear the papal miter, but rather a normal tiara common to all Latin bishops.

1965 AD

—Council of Jerusalem (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Pope Paul VI, and attended by Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras, and several Franco-Latin and Orthodox bishops, lift the anathemas of 1054 regardless of doctrinal differences. The two faiths are theoretically united and joint prayers commence. The True Orthodox protest.

1968 AD

—Council of Uppsala (Syncretistic Synod - WCC), at which the Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant delegations blasphemously declare that none of them have known the truth, and pray for “truth” to be found in the future as a product of their ecumenical dialogue.

1968 AD

—Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras inserts Pope Paul VI’s name in the diptychs, thereby restoring complete liturgical communion with the unrepentant heretical Frankish papacy.

1969 AD

—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, receives into communion the Acacian schism of Greece under Archbishop Auxentius Pastras.

1971 AD

—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by several Russian bishops, as well as Metropolitans Callistus of Corinth and Epiphanius of Citium representing the True Orthodox Church of Greece and Cyprus, respectively. The Russian bishops accept the ecclesiology of the Greek bishops in regards to the schismatic status of the new calendarists and also conform to the Greek practice of receiving converts from Western denominations by the rite of holy baptism.

1972 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Callistus, and attended by several bishops of the True Orthodox Church of Greece and of the Acacian synod, in order to heal the schism, but to no avail. The Acacians under Auxentius depart the council.

1974 AD

—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by several bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, as well as 2 bishops representing the True Orthodox Churches of Greece and Cyprus. This council states that the introduction of the new calendar caused a schism and declares the validity of new calendarist sacraments to be “in doubt.” This council also declares the Sergianist Moscow Patriarchate to be in schism and with doubtful mysteries. Finally, the 1667 ban on the Old Russian rite is lifted, preparing the way for schismatic old ritualists to return to the fold of the True Orthodox Church through confession of the faith and chrismation.

1974 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Auxentius, and attended by 8 Acacian bishops, confirms the Athenian councils of 1935 and 1950, declaring the new calendarists to be fully schismatical and therefore void of sacramental grace.

1976 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by 12 bishops of the True Orthodox Churches of Greece and Cyprus, severs communion with the Russian Church Abroad until such a time that the Russian bishops officially declare the new calendarists to be fully schismatic, and thereby terminate joint services with new calendarist bishops, and cease offering the sacraments to new calendarists.

1978 AD

—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by several bishops, severs communion with the Acacian synod due to the canonical infractions of Archbishop Auxentius and other Acacian bishops.

1981 AD

—Council of Grayslake in Illinois, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Irenaeus of the Free Serbian Orthodox Church, and attended by several bishops, condemns ecumenism and enters into communion with the Acacians under Archbishop Auxentius.

1983 AD

—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by 13 bishops, condemns ecumenism and the heretical branch theory, and anathematizes those who knowingly remain in communion with ecumenist heretics.

1985 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by several bishops, archimandrites and fathers of the True Orthodox Church of Greece, condemns and repudiates the syncretistic false Constantinopolitan councils of 1920 and 1923 which set forth the introduction of modernism and ecumenism in the realms of Orthodoxy, and the false Athenian council of 1923 which introduced the new calendar. This council also anathematizes the heretical Ecumenical Patriarchs Meletius Metaxakis, Basil III and Athenagoras, as well as Archbishop Chrysostom Papadopoulos of Athens.

1985 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Auxentius, and attended by 16 Acacian bishops, unites the Auxentian, Callistite and Gerontian factions in which the Acacians were up until this time divided, and confirms the Athenian councils of 1935, 1950 and 1974, declaring the new calendarists to be fully schismatic and bereft of grace.

1986 AD

—Council of Assisi (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Pope John Paul II, and attended by several new calendarist and ecumenist "Orthodox," participate in joint prayer with Protestants and representatives of various non-Christian religions.


—Council of Barr (Syncretistic Synod - WCC), attended by so-called "Orthodox," Catholic and Protestant delegations, "affirms the need to move beyond a theology which confines salvation to the explicit personal commitment to Jesus Christ," thereby declaring that faith in Christ is not necessary, and that one can be saved by other (non-Christian) means.

1991 AD

—Council of Damascus (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Patriarch Ignatius IV of Antioch, and attended by the heretical Monophysite Jacobite Syrian Patriarch Zakka. The two patriarchs enter into full communion and declare their patriarchates to be "sister churches" despite the christological differences.

1991 AD

—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by several bishops, adopts the teachings of St. Nicodemus of Athos in regards to permitting veneration of the western Holy Trinity icon in order to prevent scandals among the faithful.

1991 AD

—Council of Grayslake in Illinois (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Irenaeus of the Free Serbian Orthodox Church, and attended by several bishops, declares its submition to the sergianistic, ecumenistic Patriarchate of Serbia.


1992 AD

—Council of Athens (false council), convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by several bishops, condemns those who prefer the traditional Orthodox icon of the Hospitality of Abraham as a symbol of the Holy Trinity rather than the western- style Holy Trinity icon, despite the fact that the latter icon had been forbidden by the Pan-Orthodox Council of 1667 and the Constantinopolitan Council of 1780. The council is placed under house arrest during its session; the bishops who desire to depart are not permitted to do so until signing the council’s decrees. Archbishop Andrew of Greece, Metropolitan Epiphanius of Cyprus, Metropolitan Nicholas of Piraeus, Metropolitan Pachomius of Argolis and the synodical secretary, Archimandrite Cerycus, repudiate their signatures shortly after the council. The decisions of this council are never published in the official periodical of the Synod, but they are uncanonically distributed by other means.

1993 AD

—Council of Balamand (Syncretistic Synod), attended by representatives of the "Orthodox" Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Russia, Romania, Cyprus, Poland, Albania and Finland, declare the so-called Roman Catholics to be a "sister church."

1994 AD

—Council of Jerusalem, convened and presided over by Patriarch Diodorus, and attended by several bishops, condemns ecumenism and syncretism, especially in regards to the union of the Patriarchate of Antioch with the Monophysites and the Balamand agreement of eucharistic unity with the Franco-Latin Papists.

1994 AD

—Council of New York (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by several bishops, endorses Florinism (the belief that the modernists, sergianists and ecumenists are the “Mother Church” and possess sacramental grace) and enters into Eucharistic communion with the Cyprianites (an Acacian faction that confesses Florinism). The Synod of Metropolitan Vitaly repudiates this resolution in 2001.

1997 AD

—Council of Athens (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Gregory of Messenia, and attended by 4 bishops, anathematizes those who refer to the western- style Holy Trinity icon as untraditional or unorthodox. In so doing, this council condemns countless saints and fathers. Within 5 years, 3 of the bishops that attended this false council die and 1 departs the synod, leaving Metropolitan Gregory of Messenia alone.


—Council of New York (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by several bishops, declares its willingness to enter into agreements with and eventually submit to the sergianistic and ecumenistic Moscow Patriarchate.

2001 AD

—Council of Mansonville, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by 3 bishops, declares it has no eucharistic communion with the Moscow and Belgrade Patriarchates; repudiates the 1994 communion with the Cyprianites; confirms the 1983 anathema against ecumenism; and condemns the Laurites (those who accept the false council of 2000 and are paving their way towards union with the ecumenists).

2002 AD

—Council of Mansonville, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by 4 bishops, thoroughly condemns the heresy of Florinism (Cyprianism).

Copyright © 2003

Konig Bible History Timeline


Bible history timeline

Below is a list of some historical events that are important to the study of the Bible and its prophecies. This timeline was updated in July 2000. The research for this timeline was done by George and Raymond Konig. Many dates and years of various ancient events are taken from the "Concordia Self-Study Bible NIV."

2100 BC (4100 years ago)
God promises Abraham many descendants
Abraham lived around 2100 BC in what is now Iraq. God told him to move to Canaan, which later became Israel. Unlike many people, Abraham believed in the one true God. God rewarded Abraham's faith, making him the father of a great nation (Israel).

2000 BC (4000 years ago)
Jacob (Israel) is born
Jacob, the son of Isaac who was the son of Abraham, is born in Canaan, which later becomes Israel. Jacob's name is changed to Israel. He has 12 sons, for whom the 12 Tribes of Israel are named.

1910 BC (3910 years ago)
Joseph sold into slavery
Joseph's brothers are jealous of Joseph, so they sell him into slavery. Joseph ends up in Egypt, where he rises to power as a trusted assistant of a pharaoh. His father and his brothers later leave Canaan, because of a famine, and move to Egypt.

1446 BC (3446 years ago)
Exodus begins
After being enslaved for 400 years, the Jews, led by Moses, leave Egypt and head toward the land of Canaan, which later becomes Israel. Moses and his fellow Jews wander the desert for 40 years before reaching the border of Canaan.

1406 BC (3406 years ago)
Israel begins establishing itself as a country
After Moses dies, Joshua leads the Jews into Canaan and begins conquering the land, establishing the Jewish nation of Israel for the first time in history.

1400 BC (3400 years ago)
Israel is ruled by judges, not kings
From about 1400 BC to about 1050 BC, Israel was not ruled by kings. The people think of God as their King. Instead of an earthly king, Israel is lead by judges who settled disputes.

1050 BC (3050 years ago)
Saul becomes Israel's first king
After about 350 years of being ruled by judges, the people of Israel demand to have a king, like the neighboring countries. By demanding a king, the people are turning away from their faith in God as their king. Saul become king and reigns about 40 years.

1010 BC (3010 years ago)
David becomes King of Israel
David becomes king of Israel in about 1010 BC and reigns for 40 years. David, unlike Saul, follows the commands of God. He makes mistakes, but repents for them. He seeks to please God. He expands the size of Israel and rules over surrounding territory.

970 BC (2970 years ago)
Solomon becomes king, builds Temple
Solomon, son of David, becomes king in about 970 BC. He too reigns for about 40 years. Solomon builds the Temple in honor of God. The work is completed in about 960 BC. But, Solomon eventually turns away from God and worships false gods.

926 BC (2926 years ago)
Israel becomes a divided kingdom
Shortly after the reign of Solomon, Israel becomes a divided kingdom. The southern kingdom, called Judah, included the city of Jerusalem and the Temple. The northern kingdom continued to be called Israel. The two often war with each other.

721 BC (2721 years ago)
Assyrians conquer northern kingdom of Israel
The Assyrian Empire conquers the northern kingdom of Israel in about 721 BC. The Assyrians torture and decapitate many. They force many Jews (10 of the 12 Tribes of Israel) out of Israel and bring in foreigners. History loses track of these 10 tribes.

612 BC (2612 years ago)
Babylon conquers Nineveh (Assyrian Empire)
The Assyrian Empire's capital city - Nineveh - is attacked by coalition of Babylonians, Scynthians and Medes. As explained by the prophet Nahum in the Bible, Nineveh was to be destroyed because of the Assyrian Empire's treatment of Jews and other people.

605 BC (2605 years ago)
Babylon exerts influence over Judah
The neo-Babylonian Empire, under the reign of king Nebuchadnezzar, seeks to expand its size and begins forcing Judah into submission. Nebuchadnezzar takes many Jews as captives to Babylon to ensure Judah's obedience.

597 BC (2597 years ago)
Babylon attacks Judah
Babylonian army attacks Judah and takes more Jews as captives to Babylon. Ezekiel, one of the captives, becomes a prophet of God. Ezekiel explains that God is allowing Babylon to punish Judah because the people have been unfaithful to God.

586 BC (2586 years ago)
Babylon destroys Jerusalem and Temple
Babylon attacks Judah again. This time, the Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and the Temple that Solomon had built. More Jews are taken as captives to Babylon.

586 BC to 573 BC (2586 years ago)
Babylon king Nebuchadnezzar attacks Tyre mainland
Babylon begins a 13-year siege of the mainland of the Phoenician city of Tyre.

539 BC (2539 years ago)
Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon
After the death of Nebuchadnezzar, Neo-Babylonian Empire begins to lose power. It was conquered in about 539 BC by Cyrus the Great. Cyrus was king of the Medo-Persian Empire.

538 BC (2538 years ago)
Cyrus releases Jews from Babylonian Captivity
Cyrus offers the Jews their freedom to leave Babylon and return to Judah. Cyrus' kingdom rules over Judah and many other parts of the Middle East, but Cyrus allows people more cultural and religious freedom than did the Neo-Babylonian Empire.

536 BC (2536 years ago)
Work begins to rebuild Temple
Some of the Jews in Babylon return to Judah and begin work in about 536 BC to rebuild the Temple, which had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BC.

516 BC (2516 years ago)
Second Temple is dedicated
The Temple is consecrated for worship, 70 years after the Babylonians had destroyed it in 586 BC. For the first time in 70 years, the Jews are able to acknowledge God as their ultimate ruler in a way they had been unable to do.

333 BC (2333 years ago)
Greeks begin rule over land of Israel
The Greeks, under the leadership of Alexander the Great, defeat Persian armies in Macedonia in 333 BC. This marks the end of the Persian Empire; the Grecian Empire expands.

331 BC (2331 years ago)
Alexander conquers Tyre (Phoenician Empire)
Alexander wars against the island fortress of the Phoenician city of Tyre. He takes rubble from the mainland of Tyre and builds a walkway to the island. Alexander's forces then conquer the island fortress, bringing an end to the Phoenician Empire.

250 BC (2250 years ago)
The Old Testament is translated into Greek
A Greek ruler has the Jews translate the first five books of the Old Testament into the Greek language. (Some scholars say this translation included other books from the Old Testament, not just the first five). The translation is called the Septuagint.

175 BC (2175 years ago)
Greek ruler Antiochus Epiphanes torments the Jews
Greek ruler Antiochus Epiphanes rules Syria from about 175 BC to about 164 BC. He reigns over Judah and tries to destroy the Jewish religion and copies of the Torah (the first five books of the modern Bible). He also defiles the Temple.

166 BC to 63 BC (2166 years ago)
Jews have independence during Hasmonean Period
Maccabean revolt opens way for Jewish independence in Jerusalem and the surrounding area. The revolt is led by Mattathias and his five sons, Judas (Maccabeus), Jonathan, Simon, John and Eleazar. The era of independence runs from about 166-63 BC.

63 BC (2063 years ago)
Romans take over land of Israel
After the death of Alexander the Great, his empire was divided up among four generals. This weakens the empire. Meanwhile, the Roman Empire is becoming increasingly powerful. The Roman general named Pompey takes control of Jerusalem.

about 5 BC (2005 years ago)
Jesus is born in Bethlehem
Jesus is born in the town of Bethlehem. The Apostle Matthew later points out that Jesus' birth in Bethlehem fulfilled a prophecy delivered by the prophet Micah, about 700 years beforehand. (see Micah 5:2).

about 25 AD (1975 years ago)
Jesus begins His ministry
Jesus begins His ministry. He is about 30 years old. He probably began preaching around 25 AD.

about 28 AD (1972 years ago)
Jesus is crucified
Jesus is falsely accused of being an anti-government rebel. He is sent to Pontius Pilate, the Roman ruler of the land of the Jews, to be crucified.

70AD (1930 years ago)
Romans destroy Jerusalem and Temple
In 70AD, the Roman Army, under Titus, destroys Jerusalem and the Temple, to suppress an uprising of the Jews. According to the historian Josephus, about 1.1 million Jews were killed. Others were taken as slaves.

135 AD (1865 years ago)
Romans destroy and plow Jerusalem
In 135 AD, the Romans, under Hadrian, kill an estimated 580,000 Jews to suppress the Bar Kochva uprising. The Romans ran a plow over Jerusalem to completely destroy the Holy City. The Romans ban the Jews from living in Jerusalem.

Tyre attacked and destroyed, again
Tyre again is attacked and destroyed, this time by the Arabs. The once-great city never recovers its former greatness. This fulfills a prophecy from Ezekiel that Tyre would be attacked by many nations, never to rise again to prominence.

Timeline of Christianity


Timeline of Christianity

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The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates. For "Old Testament" chronology, see History of ancient Israel and Judah.



[edit] Era of Jesus

See also: Cultural and historical background of Jesus and Chronology of Jesus

The year one is the first year in the Christian calendar (there is no year zero), which is the calendar presently used (in unison with the Gregorian calendar) almost everywhere in the world, because of the current dominance of the Western world. Traditionally, this was held to be the year Jesus was born, however most modern scholars argue for an earlier or later date, the most agreed upon being between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C.

Jesus began his ministry after his baptism by John and during the rule of Pilate, preaching: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" (Matt 4:12-17). While the historicity of the gospel accounts is questioned to some extent by some critical scholars and non-Christians, the traditional view states the following chronology for his ministry: Temptation, Sermon on the Mount, Appointment of the Twelve, Miracles, Temple Money Changers, Last Supper, Arrest, Trial, Passion, Crucifixion on Good Friday (Mark 15:42,John 19:42), Nisan 14th (John 19:14,Mark 14:2,Gospel of Peter) or Nisan 15th (Synoptic Gospels), (7Apr30, 3Apr33, 30Mar36, possible Fri-14-Nisan dates, -Meier), entombment by Pharisees Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus of the Sanhedrin, Resurrection by God on Easter Sunday, appearances to Paul of Tarsus (1Cor 15:3-9), Simon Peter (Luke 24:34), Mary Magdalene (Mark 16:9,John 20:10-18), and others, Great Commission, Ascension, Second Coming Prophecy to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment, and establishment of the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age. See also Chronology of Jesus.

[edit] Era of the Apostles

See also: Apostolic Age, Acts of the Apostles, and Paul of Tarsus

Shortly after the Death (Nisan 14 or 15) and Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus, the Jerusalem church was founded as the first Christian church with about 120 Jews and Jewish Proselytes (Acts 1:15), followed by Pentecost (Sivan 6), the Ananias and Sapphira incident, Pharisee Gamaliel's defense of the Apostles (5:34-39), the stoning of Saint Stephen (see also Persecution of Christians) and the subsequent dispersal of the church (7:54-8:8) which led to the baptism of Simon Magus in Samaria (8:9-24), and also an Ethiopian eunuch (8:26-40). Paul's "Road to Damascus" conversion to "Apostle to the Gentiles" is first recorded in 9:13-16, cf. Gal 1:11-24. Peter baptized the Roman Centurion Cornelius, who is traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Christianity (10). The Antioch church was founded, it was there that the term Christian was first used (11:26).

[edit] Early Christianity

See also: Early Christianity

[edit] Era of the Seven Ecumenical Councils

See also: Ecumenical councils#The first seven Ecumenical Councils and Christendom

Constantine called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 to unify Christology, also called the first great Christian council by Jerome, the first ecumenical, decreed the Original Nicene Creed, but rejected by Nontrinitarians such as Arius, Theonas, Secundus of Ptolemais, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nicaea who were excommunicated, also addressed Easter controversy and passed 20 Canon laws.

[edit] Middle Ages

See also: Middle Ages

[edit] Renaissance

See also: Renaissance

[edit] Reformation

See also: Reformation

[edit] 17th century

See also: Age of Reason