An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline
By Stavros L. K. Markou
Dates are given according to the Orthodox determination of years since the time of Adam, and according to the contemporary usage of "BC" and "AD" as invented by Dionysius Exiguus. However, please take note that the Orthodox year begins in September, whereas the system of Dionysius Exiguus begins each year from January. Also, there is no year zero, and the years 1 BC and 1 AD are the exact same year according to the Dionysian system, being divided at the point of December 25. Also note that Dionysius Exiguus made an error of 8 years in determining the year of Christ’s birth.
BC / AD
Event (approximate dates given)
—Adam and Eve are fashioned and placed in Paradise. But the serpent (Satan) tempts them to disobey God's commandment, and for this, they lose God's grace and are cast out of Paradise. Adam is cursed to die that same "day." Enmity is to arise between the serpent's seed and the woman's. The former will bruise the latter's heel, but the latter will crush the former's head. This is fulfilled at the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
—Seth is born when Adam is 230 years old.
—Enos is born when Seth is 205 years old.
—Kainan is born when Enos is 190 years old.
—Maleleel is born when Kainan is 170 years old.
—Adam dies 70 years short of living a full "day" (1 day = 1000 years).
—Jared is born when Maleleel is 165 years old.
—First age ends, second age begins.
—Enoch is born when Jared is 162 years old.
—Seth dies aged 912 years.
—Mathusala is born when Enoch is 165 years old.
—Enos dies aged 905 years.
—Lamech is born when Mathusala is 187 years old.
—Enoch is raised up into heaven, aged 365 years.
—Kainan dies aged 910 years.
—Noah is born when Lamech is 188 years old.
—Maleleel dies aged 895 years.
—Jared dies aged 962 years.
—Second age ends, third age begins.
—Shem is born when Noah is 503 years old.
—Lamech dies aged 777 years.
—Mathusala dies aged 969 years.
—Great Flood. World perishes. Noah, his wife, his three sons and their wives are saved.
—Arphaxad is born when Shem is 100 years old.
—Kainan is born when Arphaxad is 135 years old.
—Construction of Babylon and Tower of Babel begins. Great Dispersion later follows.
—Sala is born when Kainan is 130 years old.
—Noah dies aged 950 years.
—Heber is born when Sala is 130 years old.
—Phaleg is born when Heber is 134 years old.
—Ragau is born when Phaleg is 130 years old.
—Third age ends, fourth age begins.
—Seruch is born when Ragau is 132 years old.
—Nachor is born when Seruch is 130 years old.
—Tharrha is born when Nachor is 179 years old.
—Approximate date of Abraham’s birth.
—Abraham is called out of Ur in Chaldea to the land of Canaan. He is chosen by God to be the founder (Patriarch) of a new nation that will prepare the world for salvation.
—Approximate date of Ismael’s birth when Abraham is 86 years old.
—Approximate date of the Circumcision of Abraham and his household. The True God is revealed to mankind for the first time since the fall of Adam. Abraham is visited by three Persons representing the Holy Trinity, whom Abraham worships as one God. Covenant (promise) is made between God and Abraham, and Abraham's seed. God, in the Person of His only-begotten Son, is to be born of Abraham's linage through his wife Sarah.
—Approximate date of Issac’s birth when Abraham is 100 years old.
—Jacob and Esau are born when Isaac is 60 years old.
—Tharrha dies in Charrhan, aged 205 years.
—Approximate date of Abraham’s death, aged 175 years.
—Joseph, a Hebrew, is sold by his brothers to Egyptian merchants. He later becomes a prominent figure in Egyptian government. Hebrews are invited by him to dwell in Egypt to escape famine. Centuries later, animosity arises between Egyptians and Hebrews.
—Fourth age ends, fifth age begins.
—Moses leads exodus from Egypt. Hebrews travel for 40 years in the desert. During this time, God reveals Himself at Sinai and bestows the Decalogue (Ten Commandments).
—By this time the Hebrew nation settles in the land of Canaan. Moses does not set foot in the promised land. He reposes in the desert and is lifted up by angels into heaven.
—Philistines conquer Israel. Saul is anointed as first King of Israel.
—David is King of Judea and later of Israel. Philistines conquered. Jerusalem captured.
—Solomon is King of Israel. Temple of Jerusalem is dedicated. Kingdom is divided between Israel in the north under Jeroboam and Judah in the south under Rehoboam.
—Prophet Elijah lives and prophesies. He is lifted up into heaven on a fiery chariot.
—Prophet Isaiah lives and prophesies.
—Traditional date of the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.
—Sargon II of Assyria sacks Samaria. Kingdom of Israel is brought to an end. The people of the northern kingdom are scattered. They become the ten "lost tribes" of Israel.
—Judah surrenders to Assyria.
—Josiah, king of Judah, is defeated and killed by Egyptians at the Battle of Megiddo.
—Nebuchadrezzar II defeats Egyptians and brings Judah under Babylonian rule.
—Destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's Temple by Nebuchadnezzar. Populace is deported and enslaved in Babylon. This marks the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity.
—Babylon is conquered by the Persians under Cyrus the Great.
—Having returned from captivity, the Second Temple is constructed and completed.
—Fifth age ends, sixth age begins.
—Walls of Jerusalem are rebuilt by Nehemiah.
—Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire. Judah brought under Hellenic rule.
—Books of the Prophets, previously kept as tradition, are officially declared as canonical.
—After several years of revolt, Jerusalem is finally liberated.
—Hebrew scriptures are translated into Greek by 72 elders, creating the Septuagint.
—Romans led by Pompey the Great capture Jerusalem and annex Syria and Judea.
—Marc Antony in Rome appoints Herod the Great as King of Judea.
—The Roman general Octavian declares himself Roman Emperor and changed his name to Augustus Caesar. It is at this point that the Roman Empire is established.
—Herod begins to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem.
—The Incarnation of our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ. The Virgin Mary conceives of the Holy Spirit on March 25 according to the Roman (Julian) calendar, which, in this year, corresponds with Nisan 15 (the first day of Pascha) according to the Hebrew Calendar.
—Our Lord, God and Savior Jesus Christ is Born of the Virgin Mary on December 25.
—Tiberius becomes Roman Emperor.
—Caiaphas is elected High Priest in Jerusalem.
—John the Baptist begins preaching. He baptizes Jesus in the River Jordan. A great voice is heard from the Father in heaven "This is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased," and the Holy Spirit descends upon Christ in the form of a dove. Christ begins His ministry.
—Jesus Christ is crucified under Pontius Pilate at the behest of the Scribes and Pharisees. On the third day, Sunday, March 25 according to the Roman (Julian) Calendar and Nisan 15 (first day of Pascha) according to the Hebrew Calendar, our Lord, God and Savior, Jesus Christ, rises from the dead. He ascends into heaven forty days later. Fifty days after His resurrection, he sends down the Holy Spirit which proceeds from the Father. The Holy Spirit enlightens the Apostles and the Church on earth is born.
—The 11 apostles convene a council in Jerusalem to select a disciple to replace Judas Iscariot as the 12th apostle. Lots are drawn and Matthias is elected and ordained.
—The 12 apostles convene a council to elect seven deacons to serve the Church.
—Council of Jerusalem, presided over by St. James, the Brother of the Lord, Bishop of Jerusalem, and attended by Sts. Peter, Paul, Barnabas, and other apostles and elders. The council condemns the Judaizers, and declares that Gentiles need not convert to Judaism, or be circumcised, nor follow the Mosaic Law, to become Christians (Acts 15).
—Council of Jerusalem, presided over by St. James, and attended by St. Paul and his disciples, as well as all the elders of the Church in Jerusalem (Acts 21).
—Following a revolt, the Romans sack Jerusalem and destroy the Temple. Hebrews are exiled. Christian spiritual center is moved from Jerusalem to Antioch, whereas the Jews and those Christians of the circumcision (Judaizers) travel to Arabia and elsewhere. It is at this point that the Jews and Judaizers are scattered and divided from the Church.
—Council of Rome, presided over by Bishop Anicetus and attended by St. Polycarp of Smyrna and others, in order to settle the issue concerning the date of Pascha. An agreement is not met, but the two opposing camps maintain ecclesiastical communion.
—Council of Rome, presided over by Bishop Victor, condemns the celebration of Pascha on Nisan 14, and addresses a letter to Polycrates of Ephesus and the Churches in Asia.
—Council of Ephesus, presided over by Bishop Polycrates, and attended by several bishops throughout Asia, reject the authority of Victor of Rome, and keep the Asian paschal tradition.
—St. Callistus is elected Bishop of Rome, but St. Hippolytus objects and has himself elected. After St. Callistus's repose, his successors Urban and Pontianus take the throne. St. Hippolytus continues as rival bishop of Rome until he is reconciled and later martyred.
—Council of Carthage, presided over by St. Cyprian, and attended by 71 fathers from Numidia and other parts of Africa. This council holds five sessions over the course of five years, but is considered one council. It condemns Novatians (those who refuse to accept sinners or to receive Christians who had lapsed during the persecution) and sets requirements for readmission into the Church for those who had lapsed. This council also rejects the teaching of Bishop Stephen of Rome in regards to baptism outside the Church. The baptism of heretics is declared invalid. Heretics are to be readmitted into the Church through baptism and chrismation, and priests through the laying-on of hands.
—Council of Iconium, presided over by St. Firmilian of Neo-Caesarea, and attended by fathers from Cappadocia, Lycea, Galatia and other parts of Asia. It rejects the teaching of Pope Stephen of Rome, and confirms the decrees of Carthage in regards to the rebaptism and re-ordination of converts baptized or ordained by heretics.
—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Firmilian of Neo-Caesarea, and attended by several fathers, condemns the Paulians (later known as Sabellians), who believe that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are one and the same person (prosopon).
—Council of Elvira, presided over by St. Hosius of Cordova, and attended by 19 bishops all together, imposes celibacy on clergy and forbids converts from heresy to ever be ordained to the priesthood. This local council is never accepted by the Easterners.
—Council of Carthage, presided over by Donatus, and attended by several African bishops, rejects the ordination of Pope Caecilian of Carthage by Felix of Aptunga, owing to the latter's supposed lapse during the persecutions, and elects Majorinus as rival Pope of Carthage. This council causes the Donatist schism.
—Roman Emperor Constantine the Great converts to Christianity.
—Constantine signs the Edict of Toleration in Milan, ending the persecution of Christians.
—Council of Ancyra, presided over by St. Vitaly, Patriarch of Antioch, and attended by 18 fathers. It is the first council to be held after the end of the persecutions. It condemns those Christians who lapsed from the faith in order to escape persecution; It formulates punishments for the lapsed, and also punishments for various types of immorality.
—Council of Arles, attended by bishops from Gaul and Britain, condemns Donatism (the schism of Carthage) and establishes 22 canons concerning church order and discipline.
—Council of Neo-Caesarea, presided over by St. Vitaly, and attended by 23 fathers all together. It establishes punishments for immorality and outlines the qualifications and criteria of worthiness for the election of clergy to the sacerdotal list.
—Council of Nicea, (First Ecumenical - Imperial Council), convened by Roman Emperor, St. Constantine the Great. It is attended by 318 fathers, including Sts. Athanasius the Great, Nicholas of Myra, Spyridon of Trimythus, Alexander of Constantinople, Alexander of Alexandria, Eustace of Antioch, Macarius of Jerusalem, and the legates of St. Sylvester of Rome. It condemns the Arians (also known as Lucianists, who believe the Son was created), Paulians (also known as Sabellians, who believe the Father, Son and Holy Spirit is the same person), Quartodecimans (those who celebrate Pascha on Nisan 14) and Meletians (those who caused a schism and parallel hierarchy in Egypt). This council also formulates the Nicene Creed, sets a united date for celebrating Pascha, condemns mandatory celibacy for clergy, establishes regulations on morality and discipline, decides Christians ought to stand, not kneel, while praying on Sunday, and establishes Rome, Alexandria and Antioch as the three equal spiritual centers (Patriarchates) of Christianity.
—The Capital of the Roman Empire is moved to New Rome (Constantinople). The Imperial Court and a large part of Old Rome's population moves to the new capital.
—Council of Tyre, convened by Emperor St. Constantine the Great, presided over by Eusebius of Caesarea, and attended by 120 bishops. Although it does not reject the decisions of Nicea, this council does at least incline towards Semi-Arianism, and manages to depose St. Athanasius the Great and several other Orthodox bishops.
—Council of Gangra, presided over by Eusebius and attended by 13 bishops all together, condemns a form of Manichaeanism (those who forbid marriage, the partaking of meat, obedience to lawful authority), and prohibits Christians from fasting on Sundays.
—Council of Antioch, convened by Roman Emperor Constantius, presided over by Eusebius of Constantinople (New Rome), and attended by 120 fathers all together. It reinforces the rule of Nicea for the common celebration of Pascha, establishes regulations regarding the organization of local (regional) churches, and the use of canonical letters by travelers for verification of their canonical standing in the Church.
—Council of Sardica, convened by Roman Emperors Constantius of New Rome and Constans of Old Rome, presided over by Hosius, bishop of Cordova, and attended by 370 fathers. It is convened to exonerate Sts. Paul of New Rome, Athanasius the Great of Alexandria and Maximus of Jerusalem, as well as Marcellus of Ancyra and Asclepas of Gaza, who had been deposed in 335 at the Council of Tyre under Eusebius of Caesarea. The Easterners agree to be present at the council of Sardica, but upon discovering that the deposed clergymen are to be given seats at the council, the Easterners depart for Philippoupolis where they hold a council of their own. The Westerners continue at the council of Sardica at which they confirm the Nicene Creed and establish several canons concerning church discipline. They proceed to depose 11 of the Easterners who departed for Philippoupolis on the charge of Arianism, whereas they exonerate and annul the depositions of Paul, Athanasius, Maximus, Asclepes and Marcellus. However, this council errs in its exoneration of Marcellus in that the latter is indeed a heresiarch (Marcellianism).
—Council of Philippoupolis, attended by 76 bishops who had departed from Sardica. It confirms the Nicene Creed and condemns the extreme form of Arianism, as well as Tritheism and Sabellianism. In addition to re-deposing Paul, Athanasius, Maximus, Asclepas and Marcellus, they also depose Pope Julius of Rome, Hosius of Cordova, Protogenes of Sardica, and several others who participated in the Sardican council. Thus, the Easterners and Westerners excommunicate each other on the grounds of heresy.
—Council of Seleucia, attended by several bishops, including St. Meletius, rejects the Nicene Creed and adopts the Acacian formula, which inclines towards Arianism. St. Meletius later rejects this formula and confesses the Nicene Creed, after which he is installed as Patriarch of Antioch in 360. Shortly thereafter he is exiled, and Euzoius (an Arian) is appointed to succeed him. Simultaneously, Paulinus (an extreme Anti-Arian who inclined towards Sabellianism) is ordained bishop of Antioch by Lucifer of Calaris, and leads the Eustathian faction. Later, Vitaly is ordained bishop of Antioch by the heretical Apollinaris. Each of the four rival bishops of Antioch are recognized by different Local Churches. For instance, the majority of the Easterners recognize the Arian Euzoius; the Churches of Egypt, Cyprus, Arabia, Africa and the West recognize Paulinus; the Cappadocians recognize Meletius, but the Asians recognized Vitaly.
—Council of Alexandria, attempts but fails to bring an end to the Antiochian schism.
—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Meletius, attended by 26 bishops, confirms the Nicene Creed and attempts but fails to bring an end to the Antiochian schism.
—Council of Illyricum, convened by Roman Emperor Valentinian, condemns Arianism and confirms the Nicene Creed. It also addresses the Churches in Asia, Phrygia, Carophrygia and elsewhere, to convene a similar council against the Arian persuasions which had arisen among them. Thus, the council of Laodicaea is held the same year.
—Council of Laodicaea, condemns Arianism, confirms the Nicene Creed and established several canons concerning church order and discipline.
—Council of Rome, presided over by Pope Damasus, signs a tome confirming Nicea, condemning Arianism and calling the Easterners towards healing the schism.
—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Meletius, and attended by 150 bishops, recognizes the tome of the Westerners in regards to healing the Antiochian schism.
—Council of Constantinople (Second Ecumenical), convened by Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great, presided over at first by St. Meletius of Antioch, and, following his repose, by St. Gregory the Theologian, Patriarch of New Rome, and attended by 150 bishops of both east and west. It condemns the Arians (also known as Eunomians or Eudoxians, who believe Christ is created, and of a completely different essence to the Father), Semi-Arians (who believe Christ is of a similar, yet different, essence to the Father), Macedonians (or Pneumatomachi, who believe the Holy Spirit is a mere creature), Apollinarians (who believe Christ has a human body and soul, but not a human rational mind), Sabellians (who believe the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are one and the same person), Marcellians (who believe the Son and Holy Spirit are not eternal persons, but are transitions of the Father that would again unite into one person with the Father at the end of time), Photinians (who believe Christ is a mere man), Millenarians (who believe in the literal thousand-year reign), and Quartodecimans (who celebrate Pascha on Nisan 14). This council reaffirms that Christians must stand while praying on Sundays and the days from Pascha to Pentecost. It recognizes Old Rome, Constantinople (New Rome), Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem as the five spiritual centers (Patriarchates) of the Christian Empire. This council also attempts to resolve the Antiochian schism since St. Meletius had reposed. St. Flavian is elected and enthroned as his successor. However, he is later rejected by the bishops of the West, Egypt, Arabia, Africa and Cyprus, who recognize Paulinus, and later his successor, Evagrius, as Bishop of Antioch.
—Council of Rome, presided over by Pope Damasus, attended by Jerome, Epiphanius of Salamis, Paulinus of Antioch and others, attempts but fails to heal the Antiochian Schism.
—Council of Constantinople, local council, presided over by St. Nectarius of Constantinople (New Rome), and attended by 20 bishops all together, establishes regulations for church discipline, especially in regards to ordinations and depositions.
—Roman Emperor Theodosius I divides the Roman Empire into East and West to be governed by his twin sons, the Roman Emperors Arcadius and Honorius, respectively.
—Council of Toledo, condemns Priscillianism (a form of Gnosticism or Manichaeanism, which follows dualistic ideas, of good and evil, light and darkness, spirit and flesh).
—Council of Seleucia, at which the Assyrian Church declares itself independent of St. Flavian of Antioch, thus forming the autocephalous archdiocese of Seleucia-Ctisephon.
—Vandals sack Old Rome, marking beginning of barbarian invasion of Empire's West.
—Council of Antioch, presided over by St. Flavian, and attended by Evagrius and the Eustathian faction, finally brings a successful, permanent end to the Antiochian schism.
—Council of Carthage, local council, presided over by Pope Aurelius of Carthage, and attended by 217 bishops all together. It condemns the Pelagians (who deny original sin and grace) and Donatism (who reject the ordination of those who had lapsed during the persecution), denies the jurisdiction of the Pope of Rome in the African Church, enumerates canon of Holy Scriptures (Old and New Testaments), and prohibits the rebaptism or re-ordination of those baptized or ordained by Donatists.
—Council of Ephesus (Third Ecumenical), convened by Emperor Theodosius II, presided over by Pope St. Cyril of Alexandria, and attended by more than 200 fathers. It condemns Nestorianism (the belief that the person of Christ consists of two hypostases, a human and a divine, and that the Theotokos is therefore to be called Christotokos, as if Christ is not God). It also confirms the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, and declares any additions or subtractions to it are henceforth forbidden. It is also declared that bishops are not to interfere in the vicinities and dioceses of other bishops.
—Council of Orange, local council, presided over by St. Hilary of Arles, and attended by 17 bishops all together, formulates canons concerning Church order and discipline.
—Council of Constantinople, local council, presided over by Patriarch St. Flavian of Constantinople (New Rome), condemns Eutychianism (the belief that the person of Christ consists of one hypostases but also only one nature).
—Council of Ephesus (Robber Synod), convened by Emperor Theodosius II, presided over by Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria, and attended by 127 bishops. It falsely styles itself the so-called "Fourth Ecumenical Council." It exonerates Eutyches who had been deposed by the local Council of Constantinople a year earler, condemns Eutyches' accuser, St. Flavian of Constantinople, and also Domnus of Antioch, Eusebius of Dorylaeum, Ibas of Edessa and others, on the charge of supposed Nestorianism.
—Council of Nicea, local council, presided over by Dioscorus of Alexandria and attended by 11 bishops, excommunicates Pope St. Leo of Rome on the charge of Nestorianism.
—Council of Chalcedon (Fourth Ecumenical), convened by Emperor Marcian and his wife Empress Pulcheria, presided over by Eusebius of Dorylaeum, and attended by 630 bishops all together. It condemns Eutychianism as well as the Monophysitism of Dioscorus (the belief that the two natures of Christ had become one nature after the Incarnation), exonerates those who had been unlawfully deposed by the Robber Council, rejects the acts of that council, except those found to be Orthodox and canonical.
—Barbarians under Attila the Hun invade Italy.
—Following the murder of Proterius, the Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, the Monophysite faction within Egypt uncanonically elects Timothy Aelurus in his place. This is followed by a struggle between the Orthodox and Monophysites for the patriarchal throne. Similar rivalry also arises at the Patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem.
—Western Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus, residing in Ravenna, is deposed by Odoacer, the commander of the Western army. Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno proposes Odoacer to be the new Western Emperor, but Odoacer declines the offer, returning the Imperial Regalia to Constantinople. Upon receiving the Western Regalia, the Roman Empire is reunited, and Zeno becomes sole Roman Emperor of both East and West.
—Council of Constantinople, convened by Emperor Zeno, presided over by Patriarch Acacius, and attended by several Orthodox and Monophysite bishops. It formulates an henoticon (union) which compromises both the Orthodox and Monophysite positions in order to form a swift union between the two opposing camps. At this time the sees of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem are occupied by the Monophysites Peter Mongus, Peter the Fuller and Theodosius respectively, and they accept the henoticon with the Orthodox Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople. The Monophysites who reject the henoticon sever communion with their patriarchs and become known as Acephali. The Orthodox who rejected the henoticon, partiularly the Pope of Rome, sever communion with Acacius and the patriarchates of the Eastern Empire. This schism lasts until 519 when the Easterners reject the henoticon and return into communion with Rome.
—Council of Seleucia, presided over by Acacius, and attended by 12 bishops. It rejects the Council of Ephesus, the Robber Council, as well as the Council of Chalcedon. It also establishes canons regarding marriage after ordination to the deaconate, and celibacy for priests. It is at this point that the Assyrian (Nestorian) Church of the East falls into schism.
—Council of Varlasapat, at which the Armenians within the Persian Empire condemn the Council of Chalcedon. However, communion with the Orthodox is later restored.
—Sixth age ends, seventh age begins.
—Ostrogoths sack Ravenna, the last of the most important Roman cities in the West.
—Council of Constantinople, at which Severus of Antioch is deposed for Monophysitism. He rejects his deposition and his followers divide into several groups. The Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria is also deposed, and his failure to recognize his deposition leads the Copts into schism from the Church.
—Council of Constantinople, at which union is restored with the Church of Rome.
—Council of Dovin, convened and presided over by Catholicos Nerses II of Armenia, embrace Monophysitism and causes the Armenian church to again fall into schism.
—Council of Orange, local council, presided over by Caesarius of Arles, and attended by 14 bishops, condemns Semi-Pelagians (who deny the necessity of grace in salvation).
—Roman Emperor Justinian I begins and completes the construction of the Great Temple of Holy Wisdom (Haghia Sophia) on the ruins of a previous temple. The new temple becomes the very center of Roman Orthodox Christianity for centuries to come.
—Council in Antioch, convened and presided over by Jacob Bardaeus, officially accepts Monophysitism and forms the Jacobite Syrian Church, in schism from Roman Orthodoxy.
—Council of Constantinople (Fifth Ecumenical), convened by Roman Emperor Justinian I, presided over by Menas of Constantinople, and attended by 165 bishops. It is convened firstly in order to condemn Origenism (belief in the preexistence of souls, reincarnation, that hell is only temporary, that demons will be saved, that there will not be a bodily resurrection, that various inanimate objects contain souls), and secondly in order to condemn the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrus and Ibas of Edessa, on the charge of Nestorianism. These latter condemnations are hurled mainly to please the Monophysites, making union more possible. Thereby it appears that the council is siding with the Monophysites. Pope Vigilius of Rome disagrees at first but is later convinced to sign the edict. This, however, causes schisms in the West.
—Council of Carthage condemns the edict that attempts to please the Monophysites and deposes Pope Vigilius of Rome for signing the edict.
—Council of Aquileia, presided over by Macedonius, condemns Pope Vigilius for signing the edict, and declares Macedonius to be independent Patriarch of Aqueleia.
—Council of Toledo, convened by the Gothic King Richard, in order to combat Arianism which is widespread among the Gothic barbarians who had invaded from the north. In its attempt to dispel Arianism, this council adds the clause filioque ("and the Son") to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed in regards to the procession of the Holy Spirit. This addition is contrary to the Second Ecumenical Council which had forbidden any additions.
—Avars lay siege to Constantinople, but Roman defense is successful. Akathist Hymn is composed in honor of the Holy Theotokos to thank her for her intercession during the war.
—Cyrus, formerly bishop of the Lazi, is appointed Patriarch of Alexandria, and through his Monothelite teachings (his belief that Christ possesses only one, divine will, energy and operation), manages to draw the great majority of Coptic Monophysites back into the fold of the official Church. The Copts thus abandon Monophysitism, but at the expense of the official Church's Orthodoxy. The compromise on the part of both camps is welcomed by the Emperor and soon the Monothelite heresy spreads throughout the entire Empire.
—Adopting Christian, Arian, Gnostic, Jewish and Pagan elements, Mohammed of Arabia establishes a new heretical form of Christianity (Mohammedanism), which is declared a new religion under the banner of Islam (meaning "submission"). Its followers are called Muslims. Islam begins to spread rapidly throughout the Middle East and North Africa.
—Council of Constantinople, local council, presided over by the Monothelite Patriarch Sergius, composes an exposition based on a heretical letter by Pope Honorius of Rome, and sends this to all the Patriarchates declaring it to be the official teaching of the Church. The Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem duly accept it, being occupied by Monothelites. Rome, after the death of the heretical Pope Honorius, returns to Orthodoxy.
—Council of Cyprus, local council, presided over by Archbishop Sergius, condemns Monothelitism as expressed in the heretical exposition of Constantinople.
—Council of Carthage, presided over by Pope Victor, also condemns the exposition.
—Council of Dovin, convened and presided over by Catholicos Nerses III of Armenia, accepts the Council of Chalcedon and enters again into communion with the Roman Orthodox Church, based however on the Monothelite compromise.
—Council of Rome, local Lateran council, presided over by Pope St. Martin, and attended by 105 bishops, and St. Maximus the Confessor, condemns the Monothelite exposition, and the heretical Popes, Patriarchs and Bishops that adhered to and promoted it.
—Council of Whitby, convened by King Oswy of Northumbria, presided over by Bishop Agilbert of the West Saxons, and attended by hierarchs of both the Celtic and Roman Churches of Britain. It condemns the Celtic calculation of Pascha (first Sunday between Nisan 14 and 20) in favor of the Roman (Alexandrian) rule (first Sunday between Nisan 15 and 21), and replaces other Celtic practices with those used by the Christians of the Roman Empire. The Celtic Church of Britain submits to the Roman Orthodox Church.
—Council of Constantinople (Sixth Ecumenical), convened by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, presided over by St. George of Constantinople, and attended by 170 fathers. It condemns Monothelitism and anathematizes the Monothelite Patriarchs Cyrus of Alexandria, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul and Peter of Constantinople, Pope Honorius of Rome, and Bishop Theodore of Pharan. They are then replaced with Orthodox successors.
—Council of Alexandria, at which the Copts who had compromised to Monothelitism during the times of controversy, reject the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council, and return into schism, not as Monophysites as earlier, but this time as Monothelites.
—Council of Antioch, at which several deposed Monothelite bishops attended, rejected the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council, and elected John Maro as a rival Patriarch of Antioch, thus forming the Monothelite (Maronite) schism from the Orthodox Church.
—Council of Trullo in Constantinople (Quintisextine - Fifth-and-Sixth Council), convened by Roman Emperor Justinian II Rhinotmetus, presided over by Paul of Constantinople, and attended by 327 bishops, establishes canons regarding church order and discipline, canons which the Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils had been unable to establish.
—Council of Aquileia, at which the Patriarch of Aquileia reunites with the Pope of Rome.
—Lombards sack Ravenna, the most important Roman stronghold in the West.
—Council of Hiereia in Constantinople (also known as the Iconoclastic or Mock Council), convened by Roman Emperor Constantine V Copronymus, presided over by Archbishop Theodosius of Ephesus, and attended by 338 bishops all together. It falsely styles itself the "Seventh Ecumenical Council." It condemns the writing of icons, or the painting of pictures, and forbids the veneration of images on the charge of idolatry.
—Council of Nicea (Seventh Ecumenical), convened by Empress Irene and her infant son Constantine VI, presided over by Patriarch Tarasius of Constantinople, and attended by 350 Orthodox bishops, and 17 iconoclastic bishops who repent and are received back into Orthodoxy by the council itself. It annuls the decisions of the Mock Council of 754 and condemns Iconoclasm, while restoring the veneration of the sacred icons.
—Council of the Carolingians (Iconoclastic Council), convened by the Frankish Barbarian King Charles the Great (Charlemagne), presided over by Patriarch Paulinus of Aquileia, and attended by bishops from the Carolingian Kingdom, Aquileia and Britain, rejects the Holy Seventh Ecumenical Council of 787 and insists upon the addition of the filioque in the Creed, following the error of the Gothic Council of Toledo in 559. The Carolingians also demand Pope Hadrian of Rome to accept their decision, but he refuses, not only by recognizing the Seventh Ecumenical Council, but also by rejecting the Carolingian Council, as well as rejecting the filioque clause that the false council promotes.
—Council of Frankfurt (Iconoclastic Council), convened by Charlemagne. It condemns Adoptionism (the belief that God is the natural father of Christ's divinity, but is the Father of Christ's humanity only by adoption). However, this council also continues in the error of Charlemagne, in that it condemns the Seventh Ecumenical Council of 787. It also condemns Pope Hadrian due to his acceptance of the Seventh Ecumenical Council. Charlemagne declares the Roman Empire to no longer be Roman and Orthodox, but rather "Greek" and "heretical," while he, a Frankish barbarian, styles himself and his barbarian subjects "Roman." This council also defends the heretical addition of the filioque to the Creed, despite its staunch rejection by Pope Hadrian of Rome. Charlemagne charges the Eastern Romans with heresy only to discredit the Roman Emperor. Charlemagne plans for himself to be crowned Roman Emperor of both East and West. He charges the Easterners with heresy to support his political agenda.
—Council of Frioul, convened by Charlemagne, presided over by Patriarch Paulinus of Aquileia, defends the insertion of filioque in Creed, despite Pope Hadrian's resistance.
—Council of Rome, convened by Charlemagne, presided over by Pope Leo III, and attended by mostly Frankish bishops. The council restores Pope Leo III to his rank after he had been forced to flee Rome due to accusations of immorality held against him. However, Charlemagne captures and banishes Pope Leo's accusers. In return, Pope Leo III is forced to crown Charlemagne as "Holy Roman Emperor," even though he has no connection with the true Roman Empire governed from Constantinople (New Rome). The true Roman Emperor, Constantine VI, rejects Charlemagne's claims to Roman Imperial authority. The crowning of Charlemagne forms a political schism between the true Romans in east and west, and the Franko-Latins who falsely style themselves "Romans" and dare to call all the true Romans "Greek heretics."
—Council of Aachen, convened by Charlemagne, presided over by Patriarch Paulinus of Aquileia, and attended by Frankish bishops, again condemns the Seventh Ecumenical Council, requests Pope Leo III to annul the Western Church's acceptance of the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and declares the filioque necessary for salvation. Pope Leo III, however, rejects this council, declares his acceptance of the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and refuses to add the heretical filioque to the Creed. Pope Leo demonstrates this by ordering the Creed to be engraved in Greek and Latin and hung on the doors of St. Peter's according to the original Orthodox version, without the heretical filioque clause.
—Council of Constantinople (Iconoclastic Council), convened by Leo V the Armenian, presided over by Patriarch Theodotos, and attended by Eastern bishops, orders icons in churches to be placed beyond the reach of the faithful to prevent their veneration.
—Council of Paris, convened by Frankish barbarians, again condemns the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and again insists that the filioque must be used by all Christians.
—Council of Constantinople ("Triumph of Orthodoxy"), convened by Roman Empress Theodora, presided over by Patriarch Methodius of Constantinople, and attended by several Orthodox hierarchs, annuls the Iconoclastic Council of 815 and restores the veneration of the holy icons. The iconoclasts and all other heretics are anathematized.
—Roman Orthodox monks, Cyril and Methodius, travel to the Caucasus and Crimea in order to convert the pagan Turkic Khazars. However, the latter embrace Judaism and become the ancestors of the majority of the world's future Jews. Cyril and Methodius later travel to Moravia where they successfully convert the Moravian Slavs to Orthodoxy. Soon thereafter, they begin converting the Bulgarians who had invaded Macedonia and Thrace.
—Council of Constantinople ("First-and-Second" or "Twice-Held" Council), convened by Roman Emperor Michael, presided over by Patriarch Photius, and attended by 318 bishops of both east and west, in order to resolve a dispute over Patriarch Photius of Constantinople who had been enthroned after the deposition of his predecessor, Ignatius. The council, including the Papal legates, confirms the deposition of Ignatius and declares Photius to be the lawful Patriarch. Several canons are also formulated.
—Council of Rome, convened and presided over by Pope Nicholas, uncanonically deposes Patriarch Photius and declares the deposed Ignatius to be Patriarch of Constantinople. This uncanonical council is rejected by the Easterners.
—Council of Constantinople, convened by Roman Emperor Michael, presided over by Patriarch Photius of Constantinople, and attended by 500 fathers from East and West (the Westerners were the Archbishops of Treves, Cologne and Ravenna). The Council condemns and deposes Pope Nicholas of Rome on the charges of introducing the heretical filioque clause in the creed, as used by the Pope's missionaries in Bulgaria, and for exercising beyond his authority by interfering in dioceses outside his jurisdiction. Pope Nicholas does not accept his deposition, but dies shortly after his condemnation.
—Basil the Macedonian usurps the throne after murdering Roman Emperor Michael. Patriarch Photius condemns the murder, refusing Emperor Basil communion. Basil thus deposes Patriarch Photius and replaces him with his predecessor, Ignatius.
—Council of Rome, presided over by Pope Hadrian II, condemns Patriarch Photius.
—Council of Constantinople (false council, later repudiated), presided over by Pope Hadrian's legates, attended at first by only 12 bishops, condemns Patriarch Photius.
—Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople reposes and Photius is again elected Patriarch.
—Council of Constantinople (Eighth Ecumenical), convened by Roman Emperor Basil II, presided over by Patriarch Photius, and attended by 383 bishops of both east and west. It declares the Council of Nicea in 787 to truly be the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and anathematizes those who refuse to recognize it (particularly those in France). It also annuls the Councils of Rome and Constantinople which had condemned Patriarch Photius. In addition, it declares that the Creed, the Symbol of the Faith, must remain exactly as it was handed down by the Holy Fathers. Anyone who dares to make any additions or subtractions (especially in regards to the filioque clause) is anathematized. Finally, it is decreed that the Churches of East and West are not to interfere in one another's jurisdiction, that the west is to depose western bishops and the east is to depose eastern bishops, and that these depositions must be recognized by all of the Churches. This council is also accepted and fully embraced by Pope John VIII of Rome.
—Council of Constantinople, presided over by Patriarch Anthony, and attended by local eastern bishops. The supporters of Patriarch Ignatius are reconciled with the Church.
—Roman Emperor Leo VI desires to marry a fourth time since his three deceased wives failed to bear him a male successor. The ecclesiastics then divide into two camps over whether he should be allowed a fourth marriage. The moderates are led by Patriarch Nicholas Mysticus, whereas the extremists are led by a rival patriarch called Euthymius.
—Council of Constantinople (Tetragamy Synod), presided over by Patriarch Theophylact, declares fourth marriages to no longer be acceptable, heels the schism of 907 and the reposed rival patriarchs Nicholas and Euthymius are both glorified as saints.
—After conquering Macedonia and Thrace, the Bulgar Khan Symeon declares himself "Emperor of the Bulgars and Romans." This title is later recognized by the Pope of Rome.
—Russian Prince Igor leads attack on Constantinople. However, the Romans succeed in defending the Imperial City.
—St. Athanasius founds Great Lavra, forming the first monastic community of Mt. Athos.
—Prince Vladimir of Kiev converts and Russia becomes an Orthodox Christian state.
—After the repose of Pope John XV, the Frankish King Otto III installs his relative, Bruno, as the first German (non-Roman) Pope, who takes the name Gregory V. At this point, the once Roman papacy converts to a Frankish organization and becomes a simple pawn of the autocracy. Due to the Frankish control of the papacy, the rulings of the Eighth Ecumenical Council of 879 (of which Pope John VIII had participated) are uncanonically rejected. This allows the filioque to be introduced into the Church of Rome, as well as the papal claims of world domination (heretical views condemned by the Eighth Ecumenical Council). The new Frankish papacy also begins to reject the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" for the Archbishop of Constantinople (New Rome), an historic title bestowed upon the latter as early as 7th century. A Roman Orthodox party in the West rejects the new Frankish Germanic pope and elects a truly Roman and Orthodox Pope, John XVI.
—After being blinded and imprisoned for several years by the Frankish Antipope Gregory V, the last truly Roman and Orthodox Pope, John XVI of Rome, reposes in the Lord.
—Ecumenical Patriarch Eustachius of Constantinople (New Rome) and the three other Eastern Patriarchs refuse to insert the Frankish antipope's name in the diptychs, on the grounds that the papacy of Old Rome has become plagued by corruption (simony) and heresy (filioque and papal supremacy), as well as the refusal to recognize the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" for the Archbishop of Constantinople, according to the ancient tradition. It was at this point that communion was severed with the Frankish Papacy.
—The barbarian Count Alberich III of Tusculum seizes authority in Rome and purchases the papal see (simony). Alberich crowns his 12 year old son as Pope Benedict IX. This event replaces the once Roman patriarchate with a powerless papacy that was nothing but a Frankish facade. The barbarian pope Benedict IX is a common criminal, and even the staunchest of Frankish apologists to not deny Benedict's acts of theft, murder and carnal immorality. Scandals break out continuously throughout his reign causing his dethronement. He later ascends the papal throne again, but, wanting to marry, abdicates and sells his throne to his godfather. Benedict later ascends for a third time until he is finally deposed in 1048. Thereafter, only such barbarians occupy the papal throne.
—Council of Vercelli, convened by King Henry I and presided over by Pope Leo III, condemns Berengar of Tours (who believed that Christ is only spiritually present in the Sacred Gifts, rather than physically present in the form of his divine body and blood).
—The Archbishop of Canterbury flees from England due to political reasons. King Edward the Confessor and a council of British bishops elects and installs Bishop Stigand of Winchester as archbishop. The Pope of Rome refuses to recognize the new Archbishop of Canterbury and declares the British Church to supposedly be schismatic.
—The Frankish Norman rulers demand the Roman Orthodox Christians in Southern Italy and Sicily to abandon the eastern rite and adopt Frankish liturgical practices (the heretical filioque and the use of azymes — unleavened bread). This is an attempt to estrange the Romans of Italy with their compatriots in the free Eastern Roman Empire, in order to assimilate them with their barbaric Frankish rulers. In response, the Ecumenical Patriarch Michael Cerularius demands the Latin churches in Constantinople to abandon the Latin rite and adopt the Eastern liturgical practices. This causes the schism to widen.
—Ecumenical Patriarch Michael Cerularius writes to Pope Leo IX offering to restore his name to the diptychs of the Eastern Church if a council is convened to heal the schism.
—Pope Leo IX sends three legates to Constantinople, the chief of which is Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida. Before a council is convened, the latter marches into the Church of Hagia Sophia and places a papal bull of excommunication upon the altar, in which, without a trial, he uncanonically excommunicates Patriarch Michael because the latter supposedly "omitted" [sic] the filioque from the creed and does not accept the use of azymes in holy communion. Patriarch Michael responds by calling a Council of Eastern bishops at which Cardinal Humbert is anathematized, and the use of the filioque clause in the Nicene Creed and azymes in holy communion are condemned. Many scholars mark this event as the "Great Schism" between the Roman Orthodox Church and the Frankish Papacy. However, the schism had already occurred in 1024. The events of 1054 only mark the failed attempt to restore communion and heal the already-existing schism.
—Pope Alexander II of Rome blesses the Frankish King William of Normandy to invaded Britain and submit the Orthodox population to the Frankish Papacy. Thus, William the Conqueror and his Norman forces defeat the British natives at the Battle of Hastings.
—William the Conqueror is uncanonically crowned King of England by Pope Alexander II.
—Council of Winchester, false council, convened by William the Conqueror and presided over by Papal legates, uncanonically deposes the Orthodox Archbishop Stigand of Canterbury, replacing him with the barbaric Norman Bishop Lanfranc.
—The last English Orthodox Bishop, Ethelric of Durham, anathematizes the Frankish Pope and Norman usurpers and dies a Confessor in the prisons of Westminster.
—Council of Constantinople, convened by Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and attended by several Eastern hierarchs. It condemns the heresies of John the Italian (who believes in Hellenic philosophy and ancient Greek doctrines of the soul, heaven, earth and creation; that creation is eternal or immutable; that creation is not the result of God's free will; that the world was not created ex nihilo - from nothing; that all of creation without exception will be restored; that heaven and hell are only temporary; that each individual soul exists prior to the conception of its body; that the soul is destroyed after bodily death; that Greek philosophy is capable of explaining exactly how the Logos united Himself to His human substance; and, who refuses to accept the miracles of Christ, the Theotokos and the Saints). The council also sends an epistle to the Frankish Pope Gregory VII, calling for a solution to the schism between east and west in order to form a military alliance against the Seljuk threat. Pope Gregory VII responds positively, provided that his name is restored in the diptychs of Constantinople and a council for union is convened.
—Council of Constantinople, convened by Roman Emperor Alexius I, adds the name of Frankish Pope Urban II to the diptychs of Constantinople, regardless of Filioque and Azymes, in order to form a military alliance with the Franks against the Seljuks.
—Council of Clermont, convened by the Frankish Pope Urban II, calls the First Crusade.
—Council of Piacenza, presided over by Pope Urban II and attended by representatives of Roman Emperor Alexius I, forms military and religious alliance against Muslim Seljuks.
—Crusaders defeat the Seljuks and capture Nicea and surrounding areas.
—Crusaders capture Antioch, Edessa and Jerusalem from the Muslim Seljuks. Roman Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem are exiled and replaced with Frankish Latin Patriarchs. All Christians of Jerusalem unite under Latin Patriarch and form one communion. However, at Pascha, only the Roman Orthodox lamps are lit by the Holy Light, whereas the Latins receive it second, from the hands of the Roman Orthodox. In Antioch, however, the Roman Orthodox do not accept the Frankish Patriarch. Thus they are divided, some under the Roman Orthodox Patriarch, others under the Latin.
—Council of Bari, convened and presided over by Pope Urban II, and attended by Frankish Latin bishops, as well as by Greek-speaking Roman Orthodox bishops of Southern Italy, numbering 185 in total. The Roman Orthodox bishops present are forced to accept the addition of the filioque in the creed and unite with the Frankish Papacy.
—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Callistus II, and attended by 300 western bishops and abbots, condemns simony and carries out various reforms.
—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Innocent II, and attended by 500 western bishops, condemns simony and the followers of Arnold of Brescia, who refuse to accept the mysteries of the eucharist, priesthood, matrimony and infant baptism.
—Second Crusade, called by Pope Eugenius III and led by Kings Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, in order to recapture Edessa which had been invaded by Muslims. Passing through Constantinople, the crusaders lay siege on Damascus, but fail to capture the city. However, they manage to seize Lisbon in Iberia from Muslim rule.
—Council of Blachernae, convened and presided over by Patriarch Luke Chrysoberges of Constantinople, condemns Baselakes and Soterichus, those who believe that Christ offered His sacrifice on the cross to His Father alone, and not to Himself and the Holy Spirit; that the sacrifice of the Divine Liturgy is only figuratively the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ; that the sacrifice of the Eucharist is not one and the same with that of Christ on the cross; that men are reconciled with the Son through the incarnation and with the Father through the passion; that the deification of Christ's humanity destroyed His human nature; that His deified human nature is not worthy of worship; that Christ's humanity was swallowed up by His divinity and therefore His passion was a mere illusion; that Christ's human characteristics, such as His creaturehood, circumscription, mortality and blameless passions, are only hypothetical, since His humanity is considered in abstraction and not really and truly; and other heretical doctrines.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Luke Chrysoberges, condemns Constantine the Bulgarian, who believes that the phrase "My Father is greater than I" refers only to Christ's human nature taken in abstraction, and that Christ's human nature retained its properties in the hypostatic union.
—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Alexander III, and attended by 300 western bishops, some eastern Latin bishops and one eastern Greek bishop, firstly in order to heal the schism formed 20 years earlier by the election of antipope Hadrian IV by the Frankish Emperor Frederick I, and secondly to condemn the Albigenses and Waldenses (Neo-Gnostic sects based on Manichaean principles).
—Third crusade, called by Latin pope and led by Frankish nobles, against Muslims.
—Fourth crusade, never reaches Middle East, but rather invades Roman territory.
—Frankish Crusaders sack Constantinople and set up a Latin Kingdom in its place, destroying and pillaging the city's great riches. This causes contempt between Greeks and Latins, thereby widening the schism between the Papist west and Orthodox east.
—The Serbians declare themselves ecclesiastically independent of the archdiocese of Achris (Ochrid). In 1219, the Ecumenical Patriarchate recognizes the independence of the Serbs and consecrates St. Sabbas as Archbishop of Pec. The latter returns to Serbia and consecrates nine new bishops, thereby establishing the Serbian Orthodox Church.
—Council of Turnovo, convened by Boril, Emperor of the Vlachs and Bulgarians, presided over by Patriarch Basil of Ochrid, and attended by several bishops, condemns the heresy of the Bogomils (Cathars or Puritans), who hold a form of Gnosticism or Manichaeanism.
—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Innocent III, and attended by 404 western bishops, one eastern bishop (the Patriarch of the Maronites), the delegates of the Roman Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, and several delegates of the eastern Latin Patriarchs, condemns the teachings of Abbot Joachim of Fiore, and accepts those of Peter the Lombard, who believes the persons of the Holy Trinity are united into a single person wherein there is neither begetting nor proceeding, thus heretically adding a fourth person to the Trinity. This council also declares it improper that the Greeks (Romans) rebaptize those who had been baptized by Latins (Franks), as practiced in the east.
—Fifth crusade called by Franco-Latin pope and led by Frederick II against Muslims.
—Council of Nicea-Nymphaeum, convened by Roman Emperor John Vatatzes, presided over by Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople, and attended by Orthodox and Papist theologians, discussed the issue of the filioque clause in order to solve the schism.
—Council of Lyons, convened and presided over by Pope Innocent IV, and attended by 150 western bishops as well as three eastern Latin patriarchs, in order to discuss the problems surrounding the Muslim threat on the Holy Land and the sufferings of the Eastern Empire; to form a defense against the Tartars and other persecutors of the Christians; and to determine the position of the Church in regards to the State.
—Sixth crusade called by pope and led by Louis IX of France.
—Council of Nicea, convened by Roman Emperor Theodore Lascaris, and attended by eastern and western theologians in order to bring an end to the papist schism.
—Roman Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptures Constantinople from Latin rule.
—Ecumenical Patriarch Arsenius Autoreianus is deposed for not absolving the sins of Roman Emperor John Lascaris, but several clergy and monks do not recognize this deposition and continue to commemorate Arsenius. Another patriarch, Gregory of Adranople, is elected, and the monk Joseph absolves the emperor's sins. This forms a division between "Arsenites" and "Josephites" which is to last 46 years.
—Seventh crusade called by pope, led by Louis IX of France, goes no further than Tunisia.
—Council of Lyons, convened and presided over by Pope Gregory X, and attended by 300 western bishops as well as the legates of Ecumenical Patriarch John Beccus, in order to heal the schism between the Papist west and the Orthodox east. Emperor Michael VIII forces the Orthodox delegation to give in to the papal claims and filioque clause in order to form a swift union enabling the unified Christian world to defeat the Muslim threat.
—Council of Blachernae, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory II the Cypriot, condemns the actions of the eastern delegation at the false council of Lyons. It also condemns the Franko-Latins who use of the filioque clause in terms of interpreting the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit as from both the Father and the Son, rather than eternally from the Father alone and through the Son only in a temporal sense.
—The Frankish Pope Boniface VIII issues a papal bull called the Unam Sanctam, in which it is decreed that two powers rule the Church, one is the spiritual power led by the pope himself, the other is the temporal power of the secular rulers. The bull also declares that all human beings ought to be subject to the Frankish pope in order to attain salvation.
—Due to political situation in Italy, the papacy moves from Rome to Avignon in France.
—Council of Ravenna, convened by Pope Clement V, and attended by several Western bishops, against the ancient tradition, declares baptism by immersion to no longer be necessary, and legalizes baptism by affusion (pouring) or aspersion (sprinkling).
—Council of Vienne, convened and presided over by Pope Clement V, and attended by 120 western bishops and 4 eastern Latin patriarchs, in order to assess the crisis in the Holy Land, to judge the Templars of Jerusalem, and to carry out various church reforms. This council also condemns the Beghards and Beguines who believe that a person in this present life can acquire a degree of perfection which renders him utterly impeccable and unable to make further progress in grace; that it is not necessary to fast or pray after gaining this degree of perfection; that those who have reached the said degree of perfection and spirit of liberty, are not subject to human obedience nor obliged to any commandments of the church; that a person can gain in this life final beatitude in every degree of perfection that he will obtain in the life of the blessed; that any intellectual nature in itself is naturally blessed, and that the soul does not need the light of glory (theosis) to elevate it to see God and enjoy him blissfully; that the practice of the virtues belongs to the state of imperfection and the perfect soul is free from virtues; and that the rational or intellectual soul is not essentially and of itself the form of the human body.
—Arsenite schism of Constantinople is brought to an end by the reconciliation of the Arsenites to the Josephites. The reposed Patriarch Arsenius is glorified as a saint. Later, five Arsenite biships again sever communion with the Patriarch and die in schism. But one of these schismatic bishops, Theoleptus of Philadelphia, is later glorified as a saint.
—Council of Haghia Sophia (Ninth Ecumenical) convened by Roman Emperor Andronicus III, presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch John Calecas, and attended by the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, and several bishops and abbots, including St. Gregory Palamas. This council condemns Barlaam of Calabria, who believes the light of Mt. Tabor is created, and who criticizes the mystical Jesus Prayer as a supposed practice of the Bogomils, and charges it for not proclaiming Christ as God. Emperor Andronicus dies after the council's first session, and the second session is convened by de facto Roman Emperor John VI Cantacuzene, and presided over by Patriarch John Calecas. This council condemns Acindynus, who takes the opposite extreme to Barlaam of Calabria, believing that the light of Mt. Tabor is the divine essence itself, rather than God's uncreated grace and energy, distinct from His divine essence.
—King Stephan Urosh VI Dushan of Serbia elevates the archbishop of Pec to the status of patriarch, and is then crowned by him as "Emperor of the Serbs and the Romans."
—Council of Adrianople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Lazarus of Jerusalem, and attended by several Thracian bishops, deposes Ecumenical Patriarch John Calecas for supporting and ordaining the condemned heretic, Acindynus.
—Council of Constantinople (Palamite), convened by Roman Empress Anne of Savoy and her infant son Emperor John V, deposes Calecas and confirms the Tome of 1341.
—Council of Blachernae (Palamite), convened by Roman Emperor John VI Cantacuzene, presided over by Patriarch Callistus of Constantinople, and attended by several bishops, the most prominent of which was St. Gregory Palamas, Archbishop of Thessalonica. This council condemns the Anti-Palamites, and brings a final end to the Acindynite heresy.
—The Frankish Pope Gregory XI returns the papacy from Avignon back to Rome and dies shortly thereafter. The residents of Rome cause riots and havoc demanding the election of a Roman pope, as opposed to a Frankish one. Fearing their safety, the cardinals elect an Italian, Bartholomew of Bari, who takes the name Urban VI. However, due to Urban's ill treatment of his cardinals, 13 of them declare his election flawed due to the riots preceding it, and elect a new, Frankish pope, Clement VII, who eventually resides in Avignon. Henceforth there are two popes, two papacies, two papal lineages, two sets of cardinals and two hierarchies: those of Rome and of Avignon. This event is referred to by historians as either the "Great Schism," the "Western Schism" or the "Avignon Schism."
—Council of Pisa, convened and presided over by Cardinal de Malesset, bishop of Palestrina, and attended by 4 Latin patriarchs, 22 cardinals, 80 bishops and hundreds of lower clergy, condemn and depose the two rival popes, Gregory XII of Rome and Benedict XIII of Avignon, and declare both to be schismatics. This council then ordains a new pope, Alexander V. However, the two other popes do not recognize their deposition, and henceforth there are three popes, three papacies, three papal lineages, three sets of cardinals and three hierarchies: those of Rome, those of Avignon and those of Pisa.
—Council of Constance, convened by the German Emperor-elect Sigismund, presided over by Pope John XXIII, successor to Pope Alexander V of Pisa, and attended by 3 Latin Patriarchs, 29 Cardinals, and 150 bishops representing all three popes, in order to bring an end to the "Western Schism." This council declares itself, and all general councils, superior in authority to the pope and forces all three popes to resign. Pope Gregory XII of Rome soon abdicates; Pope John XXIII of Pisa departs the council, which in turn deposes him, but he later resigns and his deposition is lifted; Pope Benedict XIII of Avignon, on the other hand, refuses to abdicate, and even after his condemnation and deposition, continues to serve in Spain as an antipope. The council elects Martin V as the new pope, who is to reside in Rome. The final sessions of the Council of Constance are attended by the Roman Emperor Michael Palaeologus, along with 19 Eastern Orthodox bishops. In addition to resolving the "Western Schism," this council also condemns the heretical teachings of the protestant reformers, John Wycliff of England and John Hus of Bohemia.
—Council of Basel, convened by Pope Martin V, presided over by his legate, Cardinal Julian Caesarini, and attended by several cardinals and bishops. It confirms the decisions of the Council of Constance in that general councils are to be convened as often as possible, that these councils are the highest authority in the Church, even higher than the pope, and that the pope does not have the power to prematurely dissolve the council or make any such decisions without the majority vote of the council members. Pope Martin dies shortly after the council begins, and Eugene IV is promptly elected. The council sessions continue under the presidency of Cardinal Julian, until Pope Eugene dissolves the Council of Basel in 1437 in favor of holding a council in Ferrara. However, the majority of bishops attending the Council of Basel, not accepting the pope's authority in making this single-handed decision, refuse to dissolve and demand the pope to appear before them on the charge of disobedience. After warning the pope several times but to no avail, they condemn him of schism and heresy, depose him, and elect a new pope, Felix V, in his stead. Pope Eugene does not recognize his deposition by the Council of Basel, nor the election of the antipope Felix, but convenes a new council in Ferrara.
—Council of Ferrara, convened and presided over by Pope Eugene IV, and attended by several cardinals and bishops. It declares the Council of Basel to be officially dissolved, condemns the bishops who remained thereat of schism and heresy, and nullifies their council decisions from the time of the dissolution onwards. The purpose of the Council of Ferrara is to unite with the Eastern Churches and thereby strengthen the Christian front against Islam. The Roman Emperor John Palaeologus eventually arrives at the council, followed by Ecumenical Patriarch Joasaph of Constantinople and representatives of the Roman Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, numbering about 700 in total. The question of the filioque clause and the use of azymes is not discussed, but rather only the issue in regards to purgatory. After countless debates, neither side could be persuaded to accept the other's position. With the permission of the Easterners, Pope Eugene dissolves the Council of Ferrara and a new council is convened at Florence, at which the religious debates between Easterners and Westerners continues.
—Council of Florence, convened by Roman Emperor John Palaeologus, presided over by Pope Eugene IV, and attended by Ecumenical Patriarch Joasaph and several bishops representing both Eastern and Western Churches. The question of the filioque clause is discussed and debated but to no avail, for neither side would concede to the other’s position. However, Ecumenical Patriarch Joachim suddenly dies, and the Westerners produce a document claiming that the late patriarch had conceded to all the western doctrines and had signed a declaration of union before his death. The Easterners follow suit and sign the declaration of union, all except St. Mark Eugenicus, Archbishop of Ephesus, who refuses any form of compromise in matters of the faith. Of those who do sign, all clearly state that it is merely their personal opinion and that no true union can be accomplished unless the Roman Orthodox Church convenes a general council in the East and unanimously accepts the decisions of the Council of Florence. This, however, does not occur, for the great majority of Orthodox clergy and laity staunchly protest against the union. Upon returning to the East, most of the bishops who had signed the union withdraw their signatures and again confess their fidelity to the Orthodox Faith. In the meantime, back at Florence, a union is formed between the Westerners and the Armenian Monophysites, after the latter accept the definition of the Council of Chalcedon. Later a union is formed with the Jacobite Syrian Monophysites along similar guidelines. After this, a union is formed with the Coptic Monophysites of Egypt, again along the same guidelines as the other Monophysites, with the sole addition that the Copts are required to discontinue neonatal circumcision, which had been a prominent tradition among them, despite the decision of the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem. The Armenians, Syrians and Copts reject the union years later and return to their previous Monophysite tendencies.
—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Eugene IV, and attended by several cardinals and bishops, forms a union with the Nestorian Chaldeans of Cyprus, as well as those of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, who are required to renounce the teachings of Nestorius and accept the Council of Ephesus and all subsequent ecumenical councils. A union is also formed with the Maronite Syrians of Cyprus, who are required to renounce the Monothelite teachings of Macarius of Antioch.
—Council of Kiev deposes Metropolitan Isidore who had participated in the false Council of Florence, and elects Metropolitan Jonah, declaring autonomy for the Russian Church.
—Turks led by Mehmet II capture Constantinople (New Rome), the Great Imperial City.
—Frankish Pope Eugene IV of Rome sends a Latin Metropolitan of Kiev to replace the exiled Isidore. Thus the south-western Russians are in submission to the Pope and opposed to the Orthodox rival church under Metropolitan Jonah of Moscow and all Russia.
—Turks capture Trebizond, the last major Roman city, thus ending the Roman Empire.
—The Latin Metropolitan of Kiev and his Ruthenian subjects sever communion with the Pope of Rome and enter under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Dionysius I and attended by several bishops representing the Orthodox patriarchates, condemns the decisions of the false council of Florence, declares the filioque clause and western doctrine of purgatory to be heretical, and sets requirements for Latin converts.
—Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III the Great marries Sophia, the niece of the last Roman Emperor Constantine XI Dragases Palaeologus, and assumes the titles of Autocrat, Roman Emperor and Caesar (Czar). He also adopts the Roman Imperial emblem, the double-headed eagle, to symbolize the power of his newly established Russian Empire.
—Council of Constantinople, convened by Ecumenical Patriarch Symeon I, and attended by several bishops, declares Latin converts to be received by the rite of chrismation.
—Seventh age ends, eighth and last age begins.
—Council of Lateran, convened and presided over by Pope Julius II and attended by several cardinals and bishops, repudiates the Council of Pisa and annuls the French "Pragmatic Sanction." Pope Julius dies and Leo X is elected. The latter presides over the Council, which formulates several canons and anathematizes the philosopher Peter Pomponazzi, who had taught heretical Aristotelian doctrines in regards to the soul.
—Martin Luther nails his 95 theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg. Protestant Reformation begins in Germany with Lutheran schism (Lutheranism).
—King Henry VIII creates the independent Church of England, after separating from the Pope of Rome, due to the fact that the latter would not grant him permission to divorce his wife and remarry. The Church of England later reforms and becomes a protestant sect.
—Calvin leads Protestant Reformation in Geneva forming Calvinist schism (Calvinism).
—Council of Trent, convened and presided over by Pope Paul III and attended by several bishops, condemns Lutheranism, Calvinism and other heretical forms of Protestantism.
—Council of Moscow ( "Stoglav Synod" or "Council of the 100 Chapters"), convened by Russian Emperor Ivan IV the Terrible, presided over by Metropolitan Macarius of Moscow, and attended by several bishops of the Russian Church, formulates canons in regards to church discipline and liturgy, and glorifies (canonizes) numerous Russian saints.
—John Knox leads Protestant Reformation in Scotland and forms Presbyterian Church.
—Frankish Pope Pius V orders his subjects to no longer make the sign of the cross with three fingers and from the right shoulder to the left (as was the ancient tradition), but rather with the entire extended hand and from the left shoulder to the right, in order to be different from the Easterners. The signing of the cross with three fingers is preserved only for the Pope, for bishops, and for the Carthusian and Dominican monastic orders.
—Robert Browne leads Reformation in Holland and forms Congregationalist Church.
—Frankish Pope Gregory XIII, with the help of pagan astronomers, formulates the new, papal, Gregorian Calendar, and demands its acceptance throughout the world.
—King Sigismund III of Poland, a Franco-Latin, adopts the Gregorian Calendar within the realms of his kingdom. Thus the Ruthenian Orthodox Church, centered at Kiev and under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, inquires whether it should also adopt the Gregorian calendar, but Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II calls a council and addresses a Patriarchal Sigilium (Bull) to the people of Trigovisty, under Polish rule, and to the entire Orthodox world in general, warning them not to adopt the new, papal, Gregorian calendar.
—Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, called the Illustrious, of Constantinople, and attended by Patriarchs Sylvester of Alexandria and Sophronius of Jerusalem and several other bishops, condemns those who uncanonically and heretically insert the filioque clause in the Nicene creed, thereby believing that the Holy Spirit proceeds essentially and hypostatically from both the Father and the Son, rather than essentially from the Father alone, and from the Father and Son together only in a temporal sense; those who do not administer both the body and blood in the Eucharist, bur rather only the body, claiming that it is sufficient, although Christ administered both kinds; those who administer the body in the form of unleavened bread, contrary to the gospels and ancient tradition; those who perform the mystery of holy baptism by sprinkling, rather than by triple immersion; those who believe that at the Second Coming the Lord will judge only bodies and not also souls, or embodied souls; that Christians who had failed to repent on earth go to a mythical purgatory where they are cleansed by fire before entering paradise, or that hell is not everlasting but only temporary, as in the teachings of Origen; that the Pope of Rome, rather than the Lord Jesus Christ, is the head of the Church, and supposedly has certain rights to admit people into paradise by way of indulgences, passports or licenses to sin; and those who trample upon the decrees of the First Ecumenical Council of Nicea by adopting the unorthodox Gregorian Paschalion and Menologion (i.e. the new calendar).
—Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II and attended by Patriarchs Sylvester of Alexandria, Joachim V of Antioch, Sophronius of Jerusalem and several bishops, condemns any attempt to adopt the new, papal, Gregorian calendar or to revise the Julian calendar.
—Council of Moscow, convened by Russian Emperor Theodore I, presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by several Greek and Russian bishops, raises Metropolitan Job of Moscow to the rank of Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, thereby restoring the ancient pentarchy, Moscow having replaced the fallen Old Rome.
—Council of Vilna, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by several bishops, formulates regulations for the administration of the Ruthenian Church and elects Metropolitan Michael Rahoza of Kiev as exarch and primate.
—Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened by Russian Emperor Theodore I, presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by Patriarchs Meletius Pegas of Alexandria, Joachim VI of Antioch, Sophronius of Jerusalem, Job of Moscow and several bishops, condemns the use of the new, Gregorian calendar.
—Council of Brest-Litovsk, convened by King Sigismund III of Poland, presided over by Metropolitan Michael of Kiev, and attended by the Ruthenian bishops, severs communion with Ecumenical Patriarchate and petitions for union with Franco-Latin Pope Clement VIII.
—Council of Rome, convened and presided over by Franco-Latin Pope Clement VIII, and attended by several cardinals and bishops, receives the Ruthenians into communion, allowing them to recite the creed without the filioque clause and to retain the Eastern rite. This event forms the "Greek Catholic," "Byzantine Catholic" or "Uniate Catholic" Church.
—Council of Brest-Litovsk, convened by Prince Constantine of Ostrog, presided over by Bishop Gideon Balaban of Lemburg, and attended by Bishop Michael Kopystenski of Przemysl, Archimandrite Nicephorus (representing the Ecumenical Patriarch), Cyril Lucaris (representing the Patriarch of Alexandria) and several fathers, condemn the union of the Ruthenians with the Pope, declare the maintenance of the Old Calendar, and petition the Ecumenical Patriarchate to depose the Uniate metropolitan and bishops.
—John Smyth leads Protestant Reformation in Amsterdam and forms Baptist Church.
—Council of Moscow, convened by Russian Emperor Michael, presided over by Patriarch Philaret, and attended by several bishops, declare Latin converts to be received by the rite of baptism, due to the fact that Latins baptize by aspersion rather than triple immersion.
—Council of Kiev, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Job of Kiev, and attended by bishops from throughout western Russia (at that time under Polish rule), condemn the union of Brest-Litovsk, depose and excommunicate the apostate Uniates, and declare their fidelity to the Orthodox Christian faith and loyalty to the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
—Michael Jones leads Reformation in Holland and forms Dutch Reformed Church.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Jeremiah II, and attended by several bishops, condemns the heretical Calvinism of Patriarch Cyril Lucaris.
—Council of Jassy, convened by the Duke of Moldavia, presided over by Metropolitan Peter Moghila of Kiev, and attended by several bishops representing all five Orthodox patriarchates, condemns the Latin and Calvinist heresies and especially the Uniates who had been converted by Latin and Calvinist missionaries, confirms various so-called Apocryphal books as being genuine parts of scripture, and corrects the Latin errors of the Confession of Peter Moghila, thereby permitting it to be used for Orthodox catechism.
—Council of Moscow (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened by Russian Emperor Alexis, presided over by Patriarch Païsius of Alexandria, and attended by Patriarchs Macarius of Antioch and Joasaph of Moscow, Metropolitans Athanasius of Iconium (representing the Ecumenical Patriarch), Ananias of Sinai (representing the Patriarch of Jerusalem), and several bishops and fathers, condemn the Old Ritualists (who refused to comply with corrections made in order to comply with the Church's liturgical unity, such as celebrating feastdays on the same day as the rest of the Orthodox Churches, making the sign of the cross with three fingers instead of two, not kneeling on Sundays, etc); allows heretics and schismatics to be received into the Orthodox Church by the rite of chrismation, as an act of economy (dispensation), instead of baptism; and forbids the iconographic depiction of the Holy Trinity with God the Father as an old man and the Holy Spirit as a dove, due to the fact that it transgresses the rules of Orthodox iconography as expressed by the Seventh Ecumenical Council, and because the form of this image is of unorthodox Western origin.
—Council of Jerusalem, convened and presided over by Patriarch Dositheus, condemns al the Franco-Latin heresies, including the new, papal, Gregorian calendar.
—Council of Jerusalem (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Patriarch Dositheus, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Patriarch Cyril Lucaris for his heretical Calvinist theories (that salvation is by grace alone and therefore God supposedly predestined the salvation or damnation of each individual without taking any of their deeds into account, making man's free will irrelevant to salvation; prating that God wills the damnation of souls for no fault of their own; and that holy communion is not truly the Lord's holy body and precious blood, but rather only symbolic of the Lord's suffering). The acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates, including that of Russia, thereby making its decisions equivalent to that of a Pan-Orthodox Council.
—Metropolitan Athanasius of Transylvania (under Hungarian rule) accepts union with the Franco-Latins, thereby forming the Uniate Greek-Catholic Church in Romania.
—Due to Franco-Latin missionaries in Syria, the Roman Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch becomes tainted with pro-uniate, Latin-minded clergy. After the repose of the Roman Orthodox Patriarch Athanasius III Debbas of Antioch and all the East, the pro-Latin party headquartered in Damascus uncanonically elects Cyril VI as new patriarch. A week later, the Roman Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch elects Sylvester the Cypriot as rightful successor to the throne. The other Roman Orthodox patriarchates recognize the election of Sylvester, whereas Cyril and his party are condemned as schismatics. Having fallen into schism from the Roman Orthodox Church, the schismatics unite with the Frankish papacy and form what came to be known as the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.
—The kyriakon of St. Anne's Skete on Mt. Athos is built and Orthodox faithful throughout the world send the names of their deceased relatives to be commemorated at the full services held in kyriakon. At first, the memorial services are only held on Saturdays, but due to the multitude of names to be commemorated, services begin to be held on other days of the week, including Sundays. This causes controversy as many fathers disagree with the practice of commemorating the dead on Sunday, the day of Resurrection. The fathers who disagree with the practice are scorned and called Kollyvades. Among these fathers, who are later glorified as saints, are Macarius Notaras of Corinth, Athanasius of Paros, Nicodemus of Athos and Arsenius of Paros (the latter had even died in "schism").
—Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Council), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril V, and attended by Patriarchs Matthew of Alexandria and Parthenius of Jerusalem, and several bishops representing the Orthodox patriarchates (the acts of this council are also later signed by Patriarch Sylvester of Antioch), decree that Western converts must be baptized upon their reception into the Orthodox Church. This council also condemns and anathematizes anyone that dares to change the calendar.
—Council of Cetinje, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Sabbas of Zeta and Cetinje, declares the Archdiocese of Montenegro to be independent. The autocephaly is later recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Churches of Russia and Serbia.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Theodosius II, and attended by Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem and several bishops, declares the Kollyvades to be correct in serving memorials on Saturdays, but does not judge those who perform them on Sundays or any other day of the week.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Samuel Hantzeris, declares it proper to serve memorials for the dead on Saturday alone.
—Council of Koutloumousiou in Athos, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril V, and attended by Patriarch Matthew of Alexandria and 10 bishops in total, anathematize whoever does not accept the synodical decisions on the Kollyvades issue.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Sophronius II, and attended by several bishops, excommunicates the Kollyvades.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Sophronius II, and attended by several bishops, condemns the iconographic depiction of the Holy Trinity with God the Father as an old man and the Holy Spirit as a dove, due to its Franco-Latin origins, and because it transgresses the rules of Orthodox iconography.
—Council of Cyprus, convened and presided over by Archbishop Cyprian of New Justiniana, and attended by several bishops, condemns freemasonry.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch St. Gregory V, endorses the teachings of the Kollyvades (forbidding memorial services for the dead to be held on Sundays, recommending frequent communion, and observing the empirical experience of hesychasm, regardless of metaphysical speculations and rationalism).
—The Roman Orthodox Revolution is sparked and spreads throughout the Ottoman Empire, giving hope for the re-establishment of the Roman Orthodox State (Romania).
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Agathangelus I, and attended by several bishops, condemns any attempt to revise the church calendar.
—The Roman State is re-established in Peloponnesus under John Cappodistrias, with the provisional capital of Nauplia en Romania (Napoli de Romania, Naples of Romania).
—London Conference declares the newly established Roman State to be known as the "Kingdom of Greece" or Basileia tes Hellados in Greek, for Athens to be its capital, for its people to be called Greeks or Hellenes, and to be ruled by King Otto, a Bavarian royal.
—Council of Nauplia, declares the liberated areas to be ecclesiastically independent of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, and to be governed by a five-member synod of bishops.
—Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI, and attended by Patriarchs Hierotheus of Alexandria, Methodius of Antioch, Cyril of Jerusalem and 33 bishops representing the Orthodox patriarchates, condemns all the Franco-Latin heresies that had arisen up until that time.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Anthimus VI, and attended by several bishops, recognizes the autocephaly of the Church of Greece.
—The Romanian Church declares itself independent of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
—Council of Vatican, convened and presided over by Pope Pius IX, and attended by several cardinals and bishops, confirms the false new dogma of the so-called Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and declares the pope, while he speaks ex cathedra in matters of dogma and church order, he is supposedly infallible. Many Franco-Latins disagree with this definition of papal infallibility and form what is later known as the Old Catholic Church, prominent in Germany and neighboring lands.
—Slavic-speaking Orthodox Christians living in the Thracian and Macedonian regions of the Ottoman Empire, who up until this time had referred to themselves as Romans and had belonged to the Rum Milet (Roman sub-nation under Ottoman rule), begin calling themselves Bulgarians as a reaction to the Greek-speaking Orthodox Christians of the same areas who had forsaken their Roman name and identity by adopting the term Hellenes. This ethnic schism between Slavic and Greek speaking Roman Orthodox Christians soon leads to an ecclesiastical schism. The Bulgarians sever communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI of Constantinople (New Rome), and in his place install their own Bulgarian patriarch in Constantinople, as well as their own Bulgarian Metropolitans and Bishops in every major town of Thrace and Macedonia.
—Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI, and attended by Patriarchs Sophronius IV of Alexandria and Procopius II of Jerusalem and several bishops, condemn phyletism (ethnocentric belief that Orthodox Christians in a given place and time should be divided into separate exarchates, based on ethnicity), and the Bulgarian schism is condemned. The decisions of this council are later accepted by the other local Orthodox Churches.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Procopius I of Athens, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Makrakists, who believe in the Protestant delusion that humans supposedly each consist of three natures: a body, soul and spirit; and that the former two are mortal and corruptible whereas the latter is divine, being the Holy Spirit; rather than believing that all men consist of only a single human nature; that this one nature consists of two compartments, to wit, a body and a soul; that man's sprit is simply another term for his soul and these terms are used interchangeably; that the human nature does not consist of anything divine in and of itself; and that the human soul or spirit is not eternal, but is rather created immortal and incorruptible by divine grace.
—Council of Sremsky-Carlovtsy, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Michael and attended by several bishops, declares the Serbian Orthodox Church to be autocephalous.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Joachim IV, and attended by several bishops, recognizes the autocephalous status of the Romanian Orthodox Church. The autocephaly is later recognized by the other Churches.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Dionysius V, and attended by several bishops, permits the reception of Western converts to Orthodoxy by the rite of chrismation as an act of economia (dispensation) in extreme circumstances.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Anthimus VII, and attended by 13 bishops in total, condemns all the Franco-Latin heresies, including the new false dogma of the so-called Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and the blasphemous teaching that the pope is supposedly infallible and undeposable.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Constantine V, and attended by several bishops, deposes the newly-elected Patriarch Meletius II of Antioch, on the grounds of phyletism, due to the fact that the latter had been elected by an anti-Greek, pro-Arab party within the Antiochene Patriarchate, a similar party to that which caused the Melkite schism of 1724 and subsequent union with the Latins.
—Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Council), convened and presided over by Patriarch Joachim III, and attended by several bishops, addresses the local Orthodox Churches of Alexandria, Jerusalem, Cyprus, Russia, Greece, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, requesting each to convene a council to decide two issues: firstly, whether steps should be taken for the Orthodox Church to enter into dialogue and subsequent communion with the so-called Old Catholics who had separated from the Pope in 1870 because they refused to accept the decisions of the Vatican Council regarding papal infallibility; and secondly, if an agreement could be reached in regards to whether or not to revise the Julian calendar or accept the Gregorian calendar, as requested by many proponents of revision. The Local Orthodox Churches each convene councils to discuss the issues at hand. These councils are: the Council of Alexandria (1902), presided over by Patriarch Photius; the Council of Jerusalem (1903), presided over by Patriarch Damian; the Council of Moscow (1903), presided over by Metropolitan Vladimir; the Council of Bucharest (1903), presided over by the Metropolitan of Wallachia; the council of Athens (1903) presided over by Metropolitan Theocletus; the council of Karlovtsi (1904), presided over by Metropolitan Innocent; and the Council of Cetinje (1904), presided over by Metropolitan Metrophanes. The Council of Constantinople (1904) is then resumed under the presidency of Patriarch Joachim III, and in accordance with the decisions of the Local Orthodox Churches it is decided that Universal Orthodoxy is in favor of communion with the Old Catholics so as long as the latter condemn all the Franco-Latin heresies and return to the fold of the Orthodox Church; and that Universal Orthodoxy condemns any attempt to revise the Julian calendar or accept the Gregorian, declaring that all Local Orthodox Churches adhere to the patristic Orthodox paschalion and menologion.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Joachim III, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers), who believed that the name of God is not only holy and filled with the grace of God, but blasphemously prate that God's name is rather holy in and of itself, being God Himself.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Germanus V, and attended by several bishops, again condemns the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers).
—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Macarius of Moscow, and attended by several bishops, condemns the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers).
—World War I.
—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Patriarch Tychon of Moscow, and attended by several bishops, condemns and anathematizes Militant Atheism (Marxism, Communism) which had taken control over Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution. This council also confirms the earlier condemnation of the Onomatodoxi (name-worshippers).
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by several bishops, again condemns the new calendar.
—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Patriarch Tychon of Moscow and all Russia, and attended by several bishops, ratifies a directive to allow Russian dioceses outside Russia, or out of contact with the Moscow Patriarchate due to the Bolshevik persecutions, to set up self-governing temporary higher church administrations.
—Council of Constantinople (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Dorotheus of Prusa, and attended by several bishops, seeks union with the heterodox Westerners. This remarkable about-face is mostly due to the patriarchate's fear of the spread of Communism throughout the eastern lands, especially after the fall of the Russian and Ottoman empires and the rise of the new Bolshevik and Kemalian nations, the latter of which had begun a campaign of ethnically cleansing Asia Minor of its native Roman Orthodox population and placed the Ecumenical Patriarchate in jeopardy). Fearing the future, the council blasphemously declares union with heterodox possible, regardless of doctrinal differences; proposes the adoption of a new calendar common to all denominations; and calls for the convention of so-called pan-Christian assemblies for theological dialogue leading to the union of all Eastern and Western confessions.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by several bishops, deposes Metropolitan Meletius Metaxakis of Athens for supporting the revolutionary government, which had caused the Venizelist schism. However, after his deposition by the Church of Greece, Metaxakis manages to usurp the throne of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Upon his installment by the revolutionary government, Metaxakis recognizes the orders of the heretical Anglican Church of England.
—Council of Moscow, convened and presided over by Patriarch Tychon, and attended by several bishops, condemns and anathematizes the renovationists (a modernist sect that styled itself as the “Living Church” and introduced the new calendar, shortened services, abolished the fasts, and allowed priests to cut their hair, shave and wear secular clothing; the renovationists also had strong ties with the antichristian Bolshevik regime).
—Council of Constantinople (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Meletius IV Metaxakis (a professed 33 degree freemason, who had been deposed by the Church of Greece), and attended by Bishop Gore of Oxford (another freemason, representing the Anglican heretics), Metropolitans Callinicus of Cyzicus and Basil of Nicea (a freemason representing the Church of Cyprus, and who later usurps the Ecumenical throne in 1925), Archbishop Alexander Nomolovsky (a freemason who had already been suspended by the Church of Russia), Metropolitan Gabriel of Montenegro (representing the Church of Serbia), Metropolitan James of Dyrrachium (representing the Church of Greece), Archbishop Anastasius Gribanovsky (representing the Russian Orthodox Church in Exile, who abandons the synod without signing any agreements), and Archimandrite Julius Scriban (representing the Church of Romania). The Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem and Moscow, and the Churches of Georgia and Bulgaria are not represented. This heretical congress proposes: to abandon the historic Orthodox Paschalion and Menologion and adopt the new calendar; to transfer major feastdays to the nearest Sundays in order to lessen the holidays; to allow a married episcopate, for widowed priests to remarry and for unmarried priests to be allowed to marry after their ordination; to shorten the Church services; to abolish the fasts; to allow clergy to cut their hair and shave their beards; and to allow clergy to wear secular clothing in public. The Local Orthodox Churches do not recognize this false council, and a month later riots break out in the streets forcing Patriarch Meletius Metaxakis to resign from office.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Chrysostom of Athens, and attended by 4 bishops (only 2 of which agree), decides to adopt the new calendar.
—Council of Alexandria, convened and presided over by Patriarch Photius of Alexandria, and attended by several bishops, condemns the decision of the Church of Greece to adopt the new calendar and calls for a Pan-Orthodox Council. Patriarchs Gregory of Antioch and Damian of Jerusalem and Archbishop Cyril of Cyprus reply by also condemning the new calendar and by offering Patriarch Photius their complete support.
—The Ecumenical Patriarchate and the State Church of Greece implement the change of the calendar and demand all Local Orthodox Churches to also implement the change. Patriarch Photius of Alexandria sharply rejects the innovation and declares that his Patriarchate is to remain with the old calendar. His stance is joined shortly thereafter by Patriarch Gregory of Antioch, Patriarch Damian of Jerusalem and Archbishop Cyril of Cyprus. Patriarch Demetrius of Serbia replies that although the Serbian Church was at one stage willing to adopt the new calendar, it has now changed its mind and has decided to remain with the calendar of the Holy Fathers. Patriarch Tychon of Moscow, due to a faulty translation of Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory’s telegraph, thinks that the entire Orthodox world has adopted the new calendar and therefore decides to follow suit. However, upon hearing that the majority of Local Orthodox Churches had rejected the innovation, Patriarch Tychon does not implement the change. Metropolitan Anthony of Kiev, and the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, condemns the introduction of the new calendar. The only Local Orthodox Church that implements the change of the calendar is the Church of Romania under Metropolitan Myron of Wallachia. The latter is therefore rewarded with the title of patriarch due to his blind obedience.
—Although deposed by the Church of Greece and forced to resign from the position of Ecumenical Patriarch, Meletius Metaxakis usurps the Alexandrian throne and implements the calendar change in that patriarchate. The Church of Cyprus follows in 1928.
—Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky, a leading Russian bishop, declares the Church to be completely loyal and subject to the antichristian Soviet government. Several bishops throughout Russia protest against this declaration, and are forced underground, thereby forming the Catacomb Church of Russia. The Russian Church Abroad also protests. Sergius's followers later form the "Moscow Patriarchate," created by Stalin in 1943.
—Council of Syzran-Yeltz-Vyshny-Volochok in Russia (Nomadic Synod), convened and presided over by Bishop Mark Novoselov, and attended at first by 3 other bishops and 3 priests, each representing a different Catacomb Synod (i.e. Danilovites, Josephites, Andrewites, Victorites, Yaroslavlites, Yedinovertsy, etc). This council condemns the renovationists as well as the sergianists as schismatics, declares them bereft of sacramental grace, and requires their chrismation upon reception into the Church.
—Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Basil III, and attended by several bishops, transfers the dioceses of Southern Macedonia and Western Thrace to the jurisdiction of the State Church of Greece, and elevates Metropolitan Chrysostom of Athens to the status of Archbishop of Athens and all Greece.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens, and attended by 44 bishops (most of which had been transferred to this jurisdiction the preceding year), decides to legitimize the adoption of the new calendar. Of the 44 bishops present, 13 depart the council meeting, 27 refuse to endorse the decree, and only 4 sign.
—Council of Sremsky-Carlovtsy, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Anthony of Kiev and attended by several bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, condemns freemasonry and declares unrepentant freemasons to be excommunicated.
—Council of Antioch, convened and presided over by Patriarch Alexander III, and attended by several bishops, declares baptism necessary for the reception of Western converts.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens, and attended by several bishops, condemns freemasonry and all affiliated organizations.
—Council of Sremsky-Carlovtsy, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Anastasius, and attended by several bishops, condemns the heretical Sophism or Sophiology preached in the Parisian school by Archimandrite Sergius Bulgakov (the belief that Sophia—God’s Wisdom—is a feminine personality, the soul of the world, thereby adding a fourth hypostasis to the Holy Trinity, replacing God the Father with a “mother-goddess” and other false doctrines based on Plato’s pagan philosophy, cabbalistic teachings, and heretical Valentinian Gnosticism, which had been condemned by the early Church). This council declares the Parisians (under the Ecumenical Patriarchate) to be bereft of grace.
—Council of Keratea, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by Metropolitans Chrysostom of Florina, Chrysostom of Zacynth, Germanus of the Cyclades, Christopher of Megaris, Polycarp of Diaulia and Matthew of Bresthena, condemn the introduction of the new calendar, declare the State Church of Greece to be in schism, and formulate regulations for the new seven-member synod. Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias is installed as locum tenens of the Archdiocesan throne, 5 of the remaining bishops are given ruling dioceses, whereas Chrysostom, the former Metropolitan of Florina, is placed in charge of apostolic ministry and foreign affairs, and is sent to the East to garner support from the Patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of Demetrias, and attended by Metropolitans Chrysostom of Florina, Germanus of the Cyclades and Matthew of Bresthena, and several archimandrites and fathers, declares the State Church of Greece to be fully schismatic and bereft of sacramental grace.
—Council of Ust-Kut in Russia, confirms the decisions of the 1928 Nomadic Council.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Germanus of the Cyclades, attended by Metropolitan Matthew of Bresthena, and several archimandrites and fathers, condemns Florinism, as preached by Chrysostom of Florina (the belief that those who fall under anathema and sever themselves from the Church are supposedly only potentially but not actually in schism, and therefore possess sacramental grace; that supposedly only a Pan-Orthodox Council has the power to condemn heresies that have already been condemned by numerous Pan-Orthodox Councils in the past; and that the official church, even if in schism and under anathema, is supposedly the “Mother Church” and “source of grace” simply because it is recognized as such by the state authorities.
—World War II.
—The Bulgarian Church restores communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate, adopts the new calendar and the Metropolitan of Sofia is elevated to the rank of Patriarch.
—Council of Athens (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Chrysostom of Florina and attended by 2 bishops, officially endorses the false teachings of Florinism (later known as Cyprianism). This decision is repudiated in 1950.
—Council of Amsterdam (Syncretistic Synod), at which the World Council of Churches (WCC) is established for the purpose of ecumenical dialogue and joint prayer between Orthodox and Protestants. The new calendarist Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Romania and Greece participate, along with countless Protestant sects.
—Council of Moscow (Sergianistic Synod), convened by the antichristian atheist Stalin, presided over by Patriarch Alexius of Moscow, and attended by representatives of the Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Russia, Georgia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Czechoslovakia and Poland, praises Stalin and endorses a pro-communist political stance and ironically condemns ecumenism, purely for political reasons, despite the fact that the Churches represented at this council are ecumenistic, and become even more deeply involved in ecumenism after this council's resolution.
—Council of Chirchik in Russia, convened and presided over by Archbishop Theodore, and attended by 13 bishops representing each of the Catacomb synods, condemns the sergianistic false council of 1948, and declares Metropolitan Anastasius of the Russian Church Abroad to be the true leader of the Russian Orthodox Church.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Matthew of Athens, and attended by 4 bishops and several archimandrites and fathers, condemns freemasonry.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Chrysostom of Florina, and attended by 3 bishops, repudiates Florinism and apologizes for causing a schism. In the next year 1 Florinite bishop dies and the remaining 3 resign from the episcopate. Of those that resign, 2 join the new calendarists, leaving Chrysostom of Florina alone until he dies in 1955, leaving no successors, thus bringing the Florinite hierarchy to an end.
—Council of Slatioara in Moldavia, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Galaction, and attended by 3 bishops and several archimandrites and fathers, condemns the introduction of the new calendar, declares the new calendarists to be schismatic, and formally establishes the Holy Synod of the True Orthodox Church of Romania.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Demetrius of Thessalonica, and attended by 12 bishops of the True Orthodox Churches of Greece and Cyprus, condemns new calendarism, modernism, ecumenism and syncretism, especially in regards to the involvement of various so-called Orthodox clergy and laymen in the heretical World Council of Churches convention of Amsterdam in 1948.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Agathangelus of Athens, and attended by several bishops, deposes the disobedient archimandrites Acacius Pappas (the elder), Acacius Pappas (the younger), Auxentius Pastras and several other monks for canonical infractions. Archbishop Matthew had ordained these archimandrites, but because he refused to consecrate them to the episcopacy, they departed and took the lead of the bishopless Florinite flock. These deposed monks later succeed in obtaining consecrations from a new calendarist Romanian bishop and a Russian bishop acting without the knowledge or permission of his Synod, thereby forming the “Acacian” schism, which eventually splinters into a bewilderment of factions both in Greece and abroad.
—Council of Rhodes (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras, and attended by several bishops representing each of the official Local Orthodox Churches, agrees to enter into ecumenical dialogue with the Papists.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Agathangelus, and attended by several bishops, condemns and anathematizes the heretical Russellites, otherwise known as so-called “witnesses of Jehovah,” who follow Arianism, Chiliasm, Gnosticism and countless other heresies already condemned by the early Church.
—Council of Grayslake in Illinois, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Dionysius Milivojevic, and attended by several fathers, severs communion with Patriarch Germanus of Serbia due to the latter’s involvement with the antichristian communist government of Yugoslavia, thereby forming the Free Serbian Orthodox Church in the Diaspora.
—Council of Vatican (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over at first by Pope John XXIII (a Rosicrucian Freemason) and later by Pope Paul VI (another Freemason), and attended by several cardinals and bishops, declares the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Church of England to possess the grace of the priesthood and apostolic succession, and encourages ecumenical dialogue and joint prayers with the Orthodox and Protestants. In addition to this, the false religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Judaism are declared to possess some form of truth, and Catholics are called upon to acquire a better understanding of these non-Christian confessions. At the end of the council, Pope Paul VI takes off his papal miter (traditionally worn by the Roman popes as a sign of authority) and places it upon the altar. From that day forward, the Roman popes no longer wear the papal miter, but rather a normal tiara common to all Latin bishops.
—Council of Jerusalem (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Pope Paul VI, and attended by Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras, and several Franco-Latin and Orthodox bishops, lift the anathemas of 1054 regardless of doctrinal differences. The two faiths are theoretically united and joint prayers commence. The True Orthodox protest.
—Council of Uppsala (Syncretistic Synod - WCC), at which the Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant delegations blasphemously declare that none of them have known the truth, and pray for “truth” to be found in the future as a product of their ecumenical dialogue.
—Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras inserts Pope Paul VI’s name in the diptychs, thereby restoring complete liturgical communion with the unrepentant heretical Frankish papacy.
—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, receives into communion the Acacian schism of Greece under Archbishop Auxentius Pastras.
—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by several Russian bishops, as well as Metropolitans Callistus of Corinth and Epiphanius of Citium representing the True Orthodox Church of Greece and Cyprus, respectively. The Russian bishops accept the ecclesiology of the Greek bishops in regards to the schismatic status of the new calendarists and also conform to the Greek practice of receiving converts from Western denominations by the rite of holy baptism.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Callistus, and attended by several bishops of the True Orthodox Church of Greece and of the Acacian synod, in order to heal the schism, but to no avail. The Acacians under Auxentius depart the council.
—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by several bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, as well as 2 bishops representing the True Orthodox Churches of Greece and Cyprus. This council states that the introduction of the new calendar caused a schism and declares the validity of new calendarist sacraments to be “in doubt.” This council also declares the Sergianist Moscow Patriarchate to be in schism and with doubtful mysteries. Finally, the 1667 ban on the Old Russian rite is lifted, preparing the way for schismatic old ritualists to return to the fold of the True Orthodox Church through confession of the faith and chrismation.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Auxentius, and attended by 8 Acacian bishops, confirms the Athenian councils of 1935 and 1950, declaring the new calendarists to be fully schismatical and therefore void of sacramental grace.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by 12 bishops of the True Orthodox Churches of Greece and Cyprus, severs communion with the Russian Church Abroad until such a time that the Russian bishops officially declare the new calendarists to be fully schismatic, and thereby terminate joint services with new calendarist bishops, and cease offering the sacraments to new calendarists.
—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by several bishops, severs communion with the Acacian synod due to the canonical infractions of Archbishop Auxentius and other Acacian bishops.
—Council of Grayslake in Illinois, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Irenaeus of the Free Serbian Orthodox Church, and attended by several bishops, condemns ecumenism and enters into communion with the Acacians under Archbishop Auxentius.
—Council of New York, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Philaret, and attended by 13 bishops, condemns ecumenism and the heretical branch theory, and anathematizes those who knowingly remain in communion with ecumenist heretics.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by several bishops, archimandrites and fathers of the True Orthodox Church of Greece, condemns and repudiates the syncretistic false Constantinopolitan councils of 1920 and 1923 which set forth the introduction of modernism and ecumenism in the realms of Orthodoxy, and the false Athenian council of 1923 which introduced the new calendar. This council also anathematizes the heretical Ecumenical Patriarchs Meletius Metaxakis, Basil III and Athenagoras, as well as Archbishop Chrysostom Papadopoulos of Athens.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Auxentius, and attended by 16 Acacian bishops, unites the Auxentian, Callistite and Gerontian factions in which the Acacians were up until this time divided, and confirms the Athenian councils of 1935, 1950 and 1974, declaring the new calendarists to be fully schismatic and bereft of grace.
—Council of Assisi (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Pope John Paul II, and attended by several new calendarist and ecumenist "Orthodox," participate in joint prayer with Protestants and representatives of various non-Christian religions.
—Council of Barr (Syncretistic Synod - WCC), attended by so-called "Orthodox," Catholic and Protestant delegations, "affirms the need to move beyond a theology which confines salvation to the explicit personal commitment to Jesus Christ," thereby declaring that faith in Christ is not necessary, and that one can be saved by other (non-Christian) means.
—Council of Damascus (Syncretistic Synod), convened and presided over by Patriarch Ignatius IV of Antioch, and attended by the heretical Monophysite Jacobite Syrian Patriarch Zakka. The two patriarchs enter into full communion and declare their patriarchates to be "sister churches" despite the christological differences.
—Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by several bishops, adopts the teachings of St. Nicodemus of Athos in regards to permitting veneration of the western Holy Trinity icon in order to prevent scandals among the faithful.
—Council of Grayslake in Illinois (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Irenaeus of the Free Serbian Orthodox Church, and attended by several bishops, declares its submition to the sergianistic, ecumenistic Patriarchate of Serbia.
—Council of Athens (false council), convened and presided over by Archbishop Andrew, and attended by several bishops, condemns those who prefer the traditional Orthodox icon of the Hospitality of Abraham as a symbol of the Holy Trinity rather than the western- style Holy Trinity icon, despite the fact that the latter icon had been forbidden by the Pan-Orthodox Council of 1667 and the Constantinopolitan Council of 1780. The council is placed under house arrest during its session; the bishops who desire to depart are not permitted to do so until signing the council’s decrees. Archbishop Andrew of Greece, Metropolitan Epiphanius of Cyprus, Metropolitan Nicholas of Piraeus, Metropolitan Pachomius of Argolis and the synodical secretary, Archimandrite Cerycus, repudiate their signatures shortly after the council. The decisions of this council are never published in the official periodical of the Synod, but they are uncanonically distributed by other means.
—Council of Balamand (Syncretistic Synod), attended by representatives of the "Orthodox" Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Russia, Romania, Cyprus, Poland, Albania and Finland, declare the so-called Roman Catholics to be a "sister church."
—Council of Jerusalem, convened and presided over by Patriarch Diodorus, and attended by several bishops, condemns ecumenism and syncretism, especially in regards to the union of the Patriarchate of Antioch with the Monophysites and the Balamand agreement of eucharistic unity with the Franco-Latin Papists.
—Council of New York (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by several bishops, endorses Florinism (the belief that the modernists, sergianists and ecumenists are the “Mother Church” and possess sacramental grace) and enters into Eucharistic communion with the Cyprianites (an Acacian faction that confesses Florinism). The Synod of Metropolitan Vitaly repudiates this resolution in 2001.
—Council of Athens (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Gregory of Messenia, and attended by 4 bishops, anathematizes those who refer to the western- style Holy Trinity icon as untraditional or unorthodox. In so doing, this council condemns countless saints and fathers. Within 5 years, 3 of the bishops that attended this false council die and 1 departs the synod, leaving Metropolitan Gregory of Messenia alone.
—Council of New York (false council), convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by several bishops, declares its willingness to enter into agreements with and eventually submit to the sergianistic and ecumenistic Moscow Patriarchate.
—Council of Mansonville, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by 3 bishops, declares it has no eucharistic communion with the Moscow and Belgrade Patriarchates; repudiates the 1994 communion with the Cyprianites; confirms the 1983 anathema against ecumenism; and condemns the Laurites (those who accept the false council of 2000 and are paving their way towards union with the ecumenists).
—Council of Mansonville, convened and presided over by Metropolitan Vitaly, and attended by 4 bishops, thoroughly condemns the heresy of Florinism (Cyprianism).
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